Infant-Mother Attachment: Factors Related to Its Development and Change over Time

Child Development (Impact Factor: 4.72). 07/1984; 55(3):753-71. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1984.tb03813.x
Source: PubMed


As part of a large longitudinal study, assessments of attachment relationships in high-risk mother-infant pairs were conducted at 12 and 18 months. With data collected prenatally and during the infant's first 2 years of life, this study attempted to discriminate among 3 major attachment classifications and to account for qualitative changes in attachment relationships. The data included maternal and infant characteristics, mother-infant interactions, life-stress events, and family living arrangements. Several patterns seemed to emerge. Mothers of securely attached infants were consistently more cooperative and sensitive with their infants as observed in a feeding and play situation than mothers of anxiously attached infants. Anxious/resistant infants tended to lag behind their counterparts developmentally and were less likely to solicit responsive caretaking. Anxious/avoidant infants, although robust, tended to have mothers who had negative feelings about motherhood, were tense and irritable, and treated their infants in a perfunctory manner. Male babies were somewhat more vulnerable to qualitative differences in caretaking, while, for girls, maternal personality showed a stronger relationship to security of attachment. Changes from secure to anxious attachments were characterized by initially adequate caretaking skills but prolonged interaction with an aggressive and suspicious mother. Changes toward secure attachments tend to reflect growth and increasing competence among young mothers.

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    • "These classifications categorize the quality and organization of the child's strategy for engaging a specific caregiver when distressed, and are thought to reflect healthy (i.e., secure) or worrisome (i.e., resistant/ambivalent, avoidant, disorganized) modes of achieving a sense of safety and security. Validating Bowlby's original hypothesis, research has demonstrated that consistently responsive and sensitive parents are more likely to yield children with a secure attachment, while less consistent and/or responsive parents are more likely to have children with insecure attachments (Egeland & Farber, 1984; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network, 1997). Children of maltreating caregivers are those most likely to show disorganized attachments to those caregivers (Cicchetti, Rogosch, & Toth, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Children with histories of child abuse and neglect, particularly children residing in foster or adoptive homes, are commonly considered by many professionals to need “attachment therapy” in order to address emotional and behavioral needs. However, evidence-based treatments rarely utilize an attachment-based justification outside of the infancy through preschooler age range. In actuality, many evidence-based treatments can be understood through the lens of attachment theory. This paper reviews the tenets of an attachment-based approach to treatment and describes howone evidence-based treatment, Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), conforms to all expectations and requirements prescribed by attachment theory and research. Next, pilot data froman open trial of PCIT with a sample of adopted children and their adoptive caregivers (n = 85) are provided. Results demonstrate significant improvements in positive parenting techniques, reductions in parenting stress, and reductions in externalizing and internalizing concerns among the children. These results are discussed in the context of improving the quality of care for children often described as in need of “attachment therapy.”
    Children and Youth Services Review 10/2014; 47:334-341. DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.10.009 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    • "First, only a few of the existing attachment stability studies tested the effect of parenting on the developmental course of attachment . Parenting was related to changes in attachment behaviors in infancy (Egeland & Farber, 1984) as well as in toddlerhood (Huang, O'Brien Caughy, Lee, Miller, & Genevro, 2009). However Weinfield et al. (2004) could not replicate these results across two developmental periods from infancy to adulthood. "
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    ABSTRACT: This research explores the stability of attachment representations, assessed by the Attachment Story Completion Task, within early childhood. Hypotheses were also formed about the influence of parenting, externalizing behavior and intelligence quotient (IQ) on the developmental course of children's attachment representations. Data were collected from 358 French-speaking Belgian children. Security and disorganization showed a linear improvement with age. The effect of time on the two growth curves was influenced by the child's externalizing behavior. When language abilities were controlled for in a subsample of referred children for externalizing behavior, the growth in security was found to be influenced by reasoning IQ, but the effects for disorganization were unchanged. The implications of the results for both research and clinical purposes are discussed.
    Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 03/2014; 35(2). DOI:10.1016/j.appdev.2013.12.001 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    • "Using this method , the data may be interpreted differently . Previous research has reported that among those classified as secure at one age , many remain so when investigated at a later age ( Egeland & Farber , 1984 ; Lyons - Ruth et al . , 1991 ; Moss et al . "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated attachment patterns among 60 foster children (FC) and 42 comparison children (CC) at 2 years (T1) and again at 3 years (T2) of age, as well as stability from T1 to T2. Descriptive analyses, including cross-tabulation, were used to present attachment patterns, group differences and stability from T1 to T2. Most FC were securely attached at T1, and no group differences were identified; neither the FC nor CC differed from typical children in their attachment patterns. Furthermore, the majority of children in both groups received the same classification at both time points. Among FC who were securely attached at T1, a majority remained so at T2, while among those classified as disorganized at T1, significantly less remained so at T2. The study suggests that young FC have the possibility to form enduring secure attachments when placed in stable and well-functioning foster homes.
    Attachment & Human Development 11/2013; 16(1). DOI:10.1080/14616734.2013.850102 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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