Twenty-two patients with severe long-standing rheumatoid arthritis were treated with oral zinc sulphate in a prospective long-term open trial. Six patients had (only subjective) improvement during the first 6 months of treatment, but all deteriorated subsequently. The remaining 16 deteriorated or did not improve and these patients expressed a wish to stop taking the drug after a mean period of 5 months. In the whole group of 22 patients, neither the number of affected joints, the ARA grading, nor functional classification changed significantly, nor did ESR, haemoglobin, haematocrit, or platelet count. The unpleasant taste and nausea caused by zinc sulphate was the main side effect. Our study confirms that ZnSO4 has no long-lasting beneficial effect for patients severely affected with rheumatoid arthritis.
"This decrease of copper absorption might be a reason for the contradictory results found in studies into the effects of dietary zinc supplementation in RA (Rasker and Kardaun, 1982; Mattingly and Mowat, 1982; Tudor et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolites play numerous roles in the healthy and diseased body, ranging from regulating physiological processes to providing building blocks for the body. Therefore, understanding the role of metabolites is important in elucidating the etiology and pathology of diseases and finding targets for new treatment options. Rheumatoid arthritis is a complex chronic disease for which new disease management strategies are needed. The aim of this review is to bring together and integrate information about the various roles that metabolites have in rheumatoid arthritis.
An extensive PubMed search is conducted to collect the relevant manuscripts. The metabolites are discussed in relation to rheumatoid arthritis. Subsequently, the metabolites are organized according to levels of system organization. In the last section an integrated pathway analysis of the metabolites conducted with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software is presented.
Literature search resulted in information about vitamins, eicosanoids, fatty acids, lipids, hormones and peptides. The metabolites could be related to metabolic processes, oxidative stress processes and inflammatory processes. Cell death, lipid metabolism and small molecule biochemistry were found by the pathway analysis to be the top functions, characterized by the metabolites arachidonic acid, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, cholecalciferol, hydrocortisone, keratan sulfate, melatonin, palmitic acid and stearic acid. These nine metabolites are highly connected to a number of canonical pathways related to immune functions, the production of nitric oxygen and reactive oxygen species in macrophages and pathways involved in arthritis.
This review indicates groups of metabolites that could be interesting for metabolomics studies related to rheumatoid arthritis. Circadian rhythms of metabolite levels are found to be important for understanding and treating rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, some key processes and pathways are found by integrating the metabolite data. This might offer new ideas for studies into the mechanism of and possible treatment options for rheumatoid arthritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic lymphocytes can exert very potent non-specific immunomodulatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. Repeated infusions of allogeneic suppressor or helper populations may find use in the treatment of diseases characterized by impaired suppressor function (such as many autoimmune diseases) or impaired helper function (such as AIDS), respectively. Nutritional adjuvants for use with allogeneic suppressor therapy may include essential fatty acids, zinc, selenium, and vitamin E; the latter two nutrients as well as vitamin C and beta carotene may have value as adjuvants for allogeneic helper therapy. In a small preliminary trial, long-lasting normalization of rheumatoid factor titers and clinical symptoms has been achieved in 5 of 7 cases of chronic rheumatoid arthritis treated with allogeneic lymphocyte infusions, selenium, and vitamin E. These results indicate that allogeneic lymphocyte infusions accompanied by antioxidant support can promote the induction of new appropriate suppressor activity in the host. This phenomenon of allogeneic suppressor induction may be more clinically important than direct allosuppression of host B cells under the conditions of this study, and may find application in the treatment of a number of autoimmune disorders.
Medical Hypotheses 04/1985; 16(3):189-206. DOI:10.1016/0306-9877(85)90001-5 · 1.07 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.