Effects of activated carbon and bacteriostatic filters on microbiological quality of drinking water.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 04/1981; 41(3):646-51.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Three activated carbon filters for point-of-use water treatment were tested in laboratory and field studies for chemical removal and microbiological effects on water. All removed free available chlorine in municipally treated water to below the limit of detection, but removed only about 50 to 70% of the total available chlorine and 4 to 33% of the total organic carbon. Standard plate count bacteria in the effluent increased steadily with time for 3 weeks and remained elevated over the 8-week period of the study. Total coliform bacteria were found to persist and proliferate on the filters for several days after transient contamination of the influent water. Silver-containing activated carbon filters suppressed total coliform but not total bacterial growth. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recovered from the effluents of all filters at some time during the tests.

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    Journal of Experimental Nanoscience 01/2014; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, silver cations dissolved as silver nitrate at various concentrations were exposed to Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli to quantitatively estimate the bactericidal ability of silver. Observed data were analyzed using a newly developed model (Cs x T) that introduced a specific amount of chemisorbed silver onto a bacterial cell (Cs), which represented the chemisorption properties of silver on the bacterial cell body. Silver cations were rapidly chemisorbed onto bacterial cells after injection into samples, and Cs values (initial concentration of silver was 0.1 mg Ag/l) were calculated as 1.810 x 10(-6) (L. pneumophila), 1.102 x 10(-6) (P. aeruginosa), and 1.638 x 10(-6) microg Ag/cell(i) (E. coli) after incubation for 8 h. During that time, the three tested bacteria were completely inactivated under the detection limit (>7.2 log reduction). Based on the calculated Cs values, bacterial tolerance against silver was estimated by using the equation (Cs x T) multiplying the Cs values with exposure time (T). The Cs x T values well represented the bactericidal abilities of silver against the tested bacteria. The demanded Cs x T values to accomplish a 1 log inactivation (90% reduction) of L. pneumophila, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli (the initial numbers of bacteria were 1.5 x 10(7) CFU/ml, approximately) were estimated as 2.44 x 10(-6), 0.63 x 10(-6), and 0.46 x 10(-6) microgh/cell(i) of silver. The values were significantly reduced to 1.54 x 10(-6), 0.31 x 10(-6), and 0.25 x 10(-6) microgh/cell(i), respectively, with simultaneous injection of silver and copper. This study shows the successful quantitative estimation of the bactericidal ability of silver by applying the newly developed model (Cs x T). Among the tested bacteria, L. pneumophila showed the strongest tolerance to exposure of the same concentration of silver.
    Water Research 10/2007; 41(18):4097-104. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate throughput of seeded Legionella pneumophila bacteria in domestic point-of-use filters. The filters were challenged with tap water seeded with Leg. pneumophila. After multiple challenge events (4.25 x 10(11) CFU per filter), the levels of Legionella were lower in the effluent from the filter containing both copper and silver (mean 4.48 x 10(3) CFU ml(-1)) than in the effluent from the filter containing copper only (1.26 x 10(4) CFU ml(-1); P < 0.001). After a single challenge event of approx. 5 x 10(9) CFU L. pneumophila per filter, there was no significant difference between the levels of Legionella in the effluents from a carbon filter containing copper and a carbon filter with no metals (mean 6.87 x 10(2) and 6.89 x 10(2) CFU ml(-1), respectively; P = 0.985). Legionella was detected in filter effluent up to 6 weeks after being challenged, indicating that while filters may reduce the levels during an initial contamination event, the exposure is extended as the accumulated bacteria slough off over time. This study has provided an understanding of the response of Legionella to the use of silver and copper in domestic point-of-use carbon filters.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 05/2008; 104(4):998-1007. · 2.20 Impact Factor


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