Article

The role of lipoic acid residues in the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli.

Biochemical Journal (Impact Factor: 4.65). 01/1982; 199(3):505-11.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Two lipoic acid residues on each dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) chain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Escherichia coli were found to undergo oxidoreduction reactions with NAD+ catalysed by the lipoamide dehydrogenase component. It was observed that: (a) 2 mol of reagent/mol of E2 chain was incorporated when the complex was incubated with N-ethylmaleimide in the presence of acetyl-SCoA and NADH; (b) 4 mol of reagent/mol of E2 chain was incorporated when the complex was incubated with N-ethylmaleimide in the presence of NADH; (c) between 1 and 2 mol of acetyl groups/mol of E2 chain was incorporated when the complex was incubated with acetyl-SCoA plus NADH; (d) 2 mol of acetyl groups/mol of E2 chain was incorporated when the complex was incubated with pyruvate either before or after many catalytic turnovers through the overall reaction. There was no evidence to support the view that only half of the dihydrolipoic acid residues can be reoxidized by NAD+. However, chemical modification of lipoic acid residues with N-ethylmaleimide was shown to proceed faster than the accompanying loss of enzymic activity under all conditions tested, which indicates that not all the lipoyl groups are essential for activity. The most likely explanation for this result is an enzymic mechanism in which one lipoic acid residue can take over the function of another.

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    ABSTRACT: A computer modeling system developed to analyze experimental data for inactivation of the Escherichia coli alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDC) accompanying release of lipoyl moieties by lipoamidase and by trypsin [Hackert, M.L., Oliver, R.M. & Reed, L.J. (1983) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 2226-2230] was used to analyze analogous data for the E. coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The model studies indicate that the activity of PDC, as found for KGDC, is influenced by redundancies and random processes, which we describe as a multiple random coupling mechanism. In both complexes more than one lipoyl moiety services each pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1) or alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.2) (E1) subunit, and an extensive lipoyl-lipoyl interaction network for exchange of electrons and possibly acyl groups must also be present. The best fit between computed and experimental data for PDC was obtained with a model that has four lipoyl domains with four or, more probably, eight lipoyl moieties servicing each E1 subunit. The lipoyl-lipoyl interaction network for PDC has lipoyl domain interactions similar to those found for KGDC plus the additional possibility of interaction of a lipoyl moiety and its paired mate on each dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.12) (E2) subunit. The two lipoyl moieties on an E2 subunit in PDC appear to be functionally indistinguishable, each servicing the acetyltransferase site of that E2 subunit and a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (EC 1.6.4.3) (E3) subunit if the latter is bound to that particular E2 subunit. The observed difference between inactivation of PDC by lipoamidase and by trypsin appears to be due to dead-end competitive inhibition by lipoyl domains that have been modified by excision of lipoyl moieties by lipoamidase.
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    ABSTRACT: The nucleotide sequence of the aceF gene, which encodes the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component (E2) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Escherichia coli K12, has been determined using the dideoxy chain-termination method. The aceF gene comprises 1887 base pairs (629 codons excluding the initiation codon AUG); it is preceded by a short intercistronic segment of 14 base pairs containing a good ribosomal binding site, and it is followed closely by a potential rho-independent terminator. The results extend by 1980 base pairs the previously sequenced segment of 3780 base pairs containing the structural gene (aceE) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase component (E1) and they confirm that aceE and aceF are the proximal and distal genes of the ace operon. The amino terminus, carboxy-terminal sequence and amino acid composition of the acetyltransferase subunit predicted from the nucleotide sequence are in excellent agreement with previous studies with the purified protein. The predicted molecular weight (Mr = 65959) confirms experimental values derived from sedimentation equilibrium analysis and indicates that the higher values (78000-89000) that have been reported are due to unusual features of the protein that lead to anomalous mobilities during sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in gel filtration. The primary structure fully supports conclusions, based on limited tryptic proteolysis, that the acetyltransferase subunit possesses two heterologous domains: the lipoyl domain and the subunit binding and catalytic domain. The lipoyl domain corresponds to the amino-terminal segment of the protein. It is acidic and contains three remarkably homologous repeating units of approximately 100 amino acids, each possessing a potential lipoyl binding site and a region that is characteristically rich in alanine and proline residues. The subunit binding and catalytic domain occupies most of the residual polypeptide in the carboxy-terminal segment.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 08/1983; 133(3):481-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recently characterized Mr-50000 polypeptide associated with mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, referred to as component or protein X, was shown to incorporate N-ethylmaleimide only in the presence of pyruvate or NADH. Component X, modified with N-ethyl[2,3-14C]maleimide in the presence of pyruvate, was isolated and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The radioactive products were resolved on an amino acid analyser and these coeluted with products from similarly modified and hydrolysed lipoate acetyltransferase. Preincubation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex with pyruvate or NADH and acetyl-CoA resulted in a time-dependent diminution of incorporation of radiolabelled N-ethylmaleimide into component X and lipoate acetyltransferase and, correspondingly, in the extent of inhibition of overall complex activity by N-ethylmaleimide.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 09/1986; 158(3):595-600. · 3.58 Impact Factor

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