Regulation of the macrophage content of neoplasms by chemoattractants.
ABSTRACT Factor chemotactic for mononuclear phagocytes was found in supernatant fluids of cultured human and mouse tumor cells. In 11 mouse tumors there was a correlation observed between chemotactic activity and macrophage content of neoplastic tissues. Tumor-derived chemoattractants appear to participate in the regulation of tumor-associated macrophages.
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ABSTRACT: The macrophages role within the tumor microenvironment has amended by a variety of factors, thus serves a vital role in tissue morphogenesis. The role of macrophages in health and disease differs enormously as the macrophage has shown dual functions. Macrophage has a basic role in antigen presentation serving as the first line of defense in diseases. However the presence of cytokines and growth factors, both together have regulated the macrophage to become negative effectors promoting tumor activity. Hence macrophages are a double edged weapon, and any imbalance in the regulatory mechanisms caused a shift from tumoricidal to tumorigenic activities. TAMs would be the main reason of the invasion in tumor microenvironment enhancing as well as tumor invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis promoting tumor genesis. Macrophages are the multifunctional cells which have conducted by the tumor cells to produce tumor promoting factors that enable the stimulation of angiogenesis, and tumor cell invasion. This fact has resulted initiation or promotion of tumor genesis, where the tumor has progressed to an upper malignant stage. The present review has focused on the tumor associated macrophages and their roles in tumor genesis.Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention 03/2014; 7(1):1-8.
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to characterize the localization and prognostic significance of tumour-associated macrophages (tams) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (pdac). Tumour specimens from 70 patients with pdac and inflammatory specimens from 13 patients with chronic pancreatitis were collected and analyzed for tam and M2 macrophage counts by immunohistochemistry. Correlations between tam distributions and clinicopathologic features were determined. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that tam and M2 macrophage counts were higher in tissues from pdac than from chronic pancreatitis. The tams and M2 macrophages both infiltrated more into peritumour. Both macrophage types were positively associated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.041 for tams in peritumour, p = 0.013 for M2 macrophages in introtumour, p = 0.006 for M2 macrophage in peritumour). In addition, abdominal pain was significantly more frequent in pdac patients with a greater tams count. The survival rate was much lower in patients having high infiltration by M2 macrophages than in those having low infiltration. The tam count might be associated with neural invasion in pdac, and M2 macrophages might play an important role in lymph node metastasis. Higher counts of either macrophage type were associated with increased risk of lymph node metastasis, and the M2 macrophage count could potentially be a marker for evaluating prognosis.
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ABSTRACT: Myeloid cells are key elements of the cancer-related inflammation with the potential to support not only tumor growth but also invasion and metastasis. Tumor-derived factors affect myeloid cell differentiation inducing a phenotype that supports tumor growth, inducing immunosuppression, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. Soluble mediators, produced at primary tumor site, can also act in a remote mode inducing the release from bone marrow of myeloid cells that have immunosuppressive activities in tumor-draining lymphoid organs and can predispose to colonization when migrate to metastatic organs. We will here review current knowledge on the contribution of tumor-derived signals that affect polarized activation of myeloid cells, their bone marrow release and recruitment to metastatic sites with a particular focus on the role of chemokines.Immunobiology 10/2014; 220(2). DOI:10.1016/j.imbio.2014.10.001 · 3.18 Impact Factor