Regulation of the macrophage content of neoplasms by chemoattractants.
ABSTRACT Factor chemotactic for mononuclear phagocytes was found in supernatant fluids of cultured human and mouse tumor cells. In 11 mouse tumors there was a correlation observed between chemotactic activity and macrophage content of neoplastic tissues. Tumor-derived chemoattractants appear to participate in the regulation of tumor-associated macrophages.
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ABSTRACT: The infiltration of tumors and their metastases by hematopoietic cells can contribute both positively and negatively to tumor growth, invasion, and patient outcomes. These differing outcomes are associated with both tumor heterogeneity and the diversity of leukocytes infiltrating neoplastic lesions. Tumors infiltration by histiocytes (macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs)) is associated with poor clinical outcomes, although infiltration by a subset of DCs is related to improved outcomes. T-cell infiltration of tumors and metastases are surrogates for positive outcomes, although subset analysis suggests that not all infiltrating T-cells have this potential. Overall, tumor infiltration by CD8(+) T-cells is associated with a positive outcome, while the frequency of infiltrating CD4(+) cells may be a negative predictor. In addition to tumor infiltration by macrophages and T-cells, recent studies have shown that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), also infiltrate tumors, inhibiting T-cell and DC number and function and facilitate tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In summary, hematopoietic cell infiltration of tumors can regulate tumor progression and provide a useful diagnostic surrogate. Further, strategies focused on the manipulation of cellular infiltration via cellular, gene and molecular immunotherapies have the potential to provide a novel target for adjuvant therapy.Seminars in Cancer Biology 12/2010; 21(2):131-8. DOI:10.1016/j.semcancer.2010.12.002 · 9.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metastasis resistant to therapy is the major cause of death from cancer. Despite almost 200 years of study, the process of tumor metastasis remains controversial. Stephen Paget initially identified the role of host-tumor interactions on the basis of a review of autopsy records. His "seed and soil" hypothesis was substantiated a century later with experimental studies, and numerous reports have confirmed these seminal observations. An improved understanding of the metastatic process and the attributes of the cells selected by this process is critical for the treatment of patients with systemic disease. In many patients, metastasis has occurred by the time of diagnosis, so metastasis prevention may not be relevant. Treating systemic disease and identifying patients with early disease should be our goal. Revitalized research in the past three decades has focused on new discoveries in the biology of metastasis. Even though our understanding of molecular events that regulate metastasis has improved, the contributions and timing of molecular lesion(s) involved in metastasis pathogenesis remain unclear. Review of the history of pioneering observations and discussion of current controversies should increase understanding of the complex and multifactorial interactions between the host and selected tumor cells that contribute to fatal metastasis and should lead to the design of successful therapy.Cancer Research 07/2010; 70(14):5649-69. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-1040 · 9.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine involved in the macrophage infiltration of tumor tissue. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a population of mononuclear phagocytic cells that can have a complex function in tumor biology. The aim of this study was to determine the possible correlation between parenchymal MCP-1 expression and TAM level by immunohistochemical analysis of 97 invasive ductal breast carcinomas, not otherwise specified (NOS), and to investigate their relation with tumor size, histological grade, mitotic activity index (MAI) and lymph node status. Secondly, the MCP-1 mRNA was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in eight samples of normal breast tissue and 27 samples of invasive breast carcinomas and compared with TAMs. MCP-1 immunoreactivity was present in tumor cells (17/97), but also in TAMs, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The statistical analysis did not show a significant correlation between MCP-1 expression in tumoral epithelium and tumor size, histological grade, MAI, lymph node status or TAMs. The results of RT-PCR showed that, in all cases of breast carcinomas (27/27) and the majority of normal breast tissues (7/8), the number of detected MCP-1 cDNA copies was above the detection limit. However, carcinomas showed higher levels of MCP-1 mRNA than normal breast tissue. Nevertheless, the statistical analysis did not find a significant correlation between MCP-1 expression and macrophage infiltrations. These results indicate that MCP-1 is probably not the only and/or crucial factor involved in macrophage attraction to tumor locus in breast carcinoma.Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 08/2005; 131(7):453-8. DOI:10.1007/s00432-004-0667-3 · 3.01 Impact Factor