A systemic lymphoproliferative disorder with morphologic features of Castleman's disease. Pathological findings in 15 patients
ABSTRACT This report describes the nodal and extranodal lesions observed in 15 patients with a generalized disorder that had been histologically diagnosed as Castleman's disease. The disorder was characterized by severe constitutional symptoms, constant involvement of multiple peripheral lymph nodes, and frequent hepatosplenomegaly, in association with clinical and laboratory features reminiscent of a "collagen disease." The clinical course was chronic, with remissions and exacerbations in seven patients, and aggressive and fatal in eight. The material examined included multiple lymph node biopsies, four surgical specimens of spleen, one open lung biopsy, and material from four autopsies. The diagnostic morphological findings were observed in the nodes and were represented by the following histologic triad: diffuse marked plasmacytosis, from the medulla to the subcapsular areas; prominence of the germinal centers; and good preservation of the architecture. One variant of this basic pattern featured abundant immunoblasts and blood vessels. The process appears to be a systemic reactive proliferation of B-lymphocytes, perhaps resulting from faulty immune regulation. Morphologic similarities indicate a relationship between this multicentric disorder and Castleman's disease of plasmacellular type. However, there are distinct differences between them in clinical presentation and evolution, and, consequently, in therapeutic approach.
- SourceAvailable from: Giovanna Rappocciolo
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- "It is remarkable that almost 20 years after discovery of HHV-8 we do not have such basic assays to study the virus. It is postulated that HHV-8 infection drives B cells to an early plasmablast-like state in MCD and a preterminal plasma cell stage of differentiation in PEL (Frizzera et al., 1983; Miller et al., 1984; Cesarman et al., 1995; Nador et al., 1995; Agematsu et al., 1997; Matolcsy et al., 1998; Dupin et al., 2000; Du et al., 2001; Klein et al., 2003; Chadburn et al., 2004, 2008; Hassman et al., 2011). Hassman et al. (2011) recently showed that latencyassociated nuclear antigen (LANA) + B cells express IgM and the λ light chain at 2.5–3.5 days post-HHV-8 infection in vitro. "
ABSTRACT: Professional antigen presenting cells (APC), i.e., dendritic cells (DC), monocytes/macrophages, and B lymphocytes, are critically important in the recognition of an invading pathogen and presentation of antigens to the T cell-mediated arm of immunity. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is one of the few human viruses that primarily targets these APC for infection, altering their cytokine profiles, manipulating their surface expression of MHC molecules, and altering their ability to activate HHV-8-specific T cells. This could be why T cell responses to HHV-8 antigens are not very robust. Of these APC, only B cells support complete, lytic HHV-8 infection. However, both complete and abortive virus replication cycles in APC could directly affect viral pathogenesis and progression to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and HHV-8-associated B cell cancers. In this review, we discuss the effects of HHV-8 infection on professional APC and their relationship to the development of KS and B cell lymphomas.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2012; 3:427. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00427
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- "Several HHV8-pos- itive cell lines have been established from PEL (Arvanitakis et al., 1996; Gaidano et al., 1996; Renne et al., 1996; Said et al., 1996; Carbone et al., 1997, 1998; Katano et al., 1999a), and used as provider cells of HHV8. MCD is also a rare disease characterized by plasmacytic lymphoadenopathy with polyclonal hyperimmunoglobulinemia and high levels of serum IL-6 (Frizzera et al., 1983; Yoshizaki et al., 1989; Chen, 1984). Follicular hyperplasia with proliferation of plasma cells and hyaline vascular alterations in the lymph node are the histopathological hallmarks of MCD. "
ABSTRACT: To investigate the expression of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-encoded proteins in the cells of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), nine rabbit polyclonal antibodies to K2, ORF26, K8, K8.1, K10, K11, ORF59, ORF65, and ORF73 were developed. Western blot analysis in PEL cell lines (TY-1 and BCBL-1) revealed that the expression of these proteins, except ORF73 (LANA), was induced by tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) treatment, indicating that these proteins are lytic proteins. Immunofluorescence assay in primary PEL cells derived from pericardial effusion and PEL cell lines with and without TPA treatment revealed that primary PEL cells exhibited the same expression pattern as noninduced PEL cell lines, and the treatment changed localization of K8, ORF59, and ORF65 proteins. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 90% of KS spindle cells expressed the ORF73 protein, whereas a small population of KS cells expressed K8, K10, K11, ORF59, and ORF65 proteins. In MCD, ORF73, ORF59, K8, K2, and K10 proteins were expressed in the cells at mantle zone of the follicle. These data indicate that KS and PEL cells expressed predominantly latent proteins, whereas MCD expressed both latent and lytic proteins, suggesting that HHV8 plays a different role in the pathogenesis of HHV8-associated diseases.Virology 05/2000; 269(2):335-44. DOI:10.1006/viro.2000.0196 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to systematically review the epidemiology and the clinical and virologic aspects of multicentric Castleman's disease in HIV-positive patients and to evaluate treatment strategies and outcome, especially in relation to HAART administration. The authors have conducted a systematic review of the English literature for all cases of newly diagnosed multicentric Castleman's disease in HIV-positive patients. The 25 studies which met the selection criteria included 84 HIV-positive patients with multicentric Castleman's disease (20 pre-HAART and 64 post-HAART era). Of them, the majority (90%) were men with 33 months median time from detection of HIV-positivity to multicentric Castleman's disease diagnosis in the HAART era. Fever and lymphadenopathy were the most common presenting symptoms and cytopenias, hypoalbuminemia, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and raised C-reactive protein the most frequently revealed laboratory findings. Kaposi's sarcoma was present in 72% of the patients and respiratory system involvement in 34%. Although the majority of cases reported were positive for human herpesvirus-8, none of the reviewed patients was found to suffer from polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome. Of the 48 patients on HAART, 64% were already on HAART at multicentric Castleman's disease diagnosis, having a better immunologic profile and a lower incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma than the 35% of patients who initiated HAART after multicentric Castleman's disease diagnosis. Nevertheless, the two groups did not have significantly different mortality rates (30 vs. 38%). At multicentric Castleman's disease diagnosis, a wide range of CD4 counts was recorded, suggesting that disease presentation could occur at any CD4 count. With regard to treatment, the study confirmed the high rates of response with rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal). Monochemotherapy seems to give short-lived responses, which require maintenance to be sustained. Polychemotherapy with CHOP has given long-term remission in a subset of patients. Other regimens used in the treatment of HIV-related multicentric Castleman's disease were antiviral agents, immunomodulatory agents, and thalidomide. The fatality rate among HIV-related multicentric Castleman's disease cases reviewed was 44%, significantly lower than that of HIV-negative individuals (65%), while median survival of the latter was 29 months longer than that of HIV-infected individuals. The fatality rate among pre-HAART patients was 75 vs. 29% among HAART patients. Infection, multiorgan failure, Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and progressive multicentric Castleman's disease were the most often reported causes of death. In conclusion, multicentric Castleman's disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder with an increasing prevalence in HIV-infected individuals. Even though life expectancy in multicentric Castleman's disease seems to have significantly improved in the HAART era, it remains a disease with a poor prognosis and an increased incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the HIV-context.AIDS reviews 01/2008; 10(1):25-35. · 4.02 Impact Factor