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Effects of lasalocid or monensin on legume or grain (feedlot) bloat

Journal of Animal Science (Impact Factor: 1.92). 07/1983; 56(6):1400-6.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Doses of .66 to .99 mg monensin/kg body weight reduced legume bloat in cattle about 66% when compared with pretreatment bloat scores. Similar doses of lasalocid reduced legume bloat about 26%. A dose of 44 mg poloxalene/kg body weight (recommended dose for field use) reduced legume bloat 100%. Monensin or lasalocid combined with 25 or 50% of the recommended dose of poloxalene reduced bloat under that of the antibiotics alone, but did not achieve 100% reduction. The antibiotic thiopeptin provided no preventive effect on legume bloat. Lasalocid, monensin or an experimental polyether antibiotic (X-14,547 A) at a dose of 1.32 mg/kg body weight when tested on cattle bloated on high grain diets reduced bloat by 92, 64 and 25%, respectively. Lasalocid at .66 mg/kg effectively prevented bloat from developing when given to animals before the feeding of high grain diets; however, a 1.32-mg dose was required to control bloat in cattle that were already bloating before they were given lasalocid. A dose of 1.32 mg salinomycin was ineffective in controlling grain bloat.

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    • "Monensin reduces acidosis by directly inhibiting the lactate-producing bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis, lactobacilli) (Dennis, et al., 1981). Bloat is a serious animal production problem that occurs when fermentation gases are retained in the ruminal fluid rather than eructated, often due to an increase in the viscosity of the ruminal fluids, resulting in an accumulation of gas that causes a " swelling " of the rumen that can asphyxiate the animal (Bartley, et al., 1985; Katz, et al., 1986). The anti-bloat effects of monensin are mediated by a direct inhibition of encapsulated ( " slimeproducing " ) bacteria, as well as a decrease in overall ruminal gas production (Galyean and Owens, 1988). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ionophores (such as monensin, lasalocid, laidlomycin, salinomycin and narasin) are antimicrobial compounds that are commonly fed to ruminant animals to improve feed efficiency. These antimicrobials specifically target the ruminal bacterial population and alter the microbial ecology of the intestinal microbial consortium, resulting in increased carbon and nitrogen retention by the animal, increasing production efficiency. Ionophores transport ions across cell membranes of susceptible bacteria, dissipating ion gradients and uncoupling energy expenditures from growth, killing these bacteria. Not all bacteria are susceptible to ionophores, and several species have been shown to develop several mechanisms of ionophore resistance. The prophylactic use of antimicrobials as growth promotants in food animals has fallen under greater scrutiny due to fears of the spread of antibiotic resistance. Because of the complexity and high degree of specificity of ionophore resistance, it appears that ionophores do not contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance to important human drugs. Therefore it appears that ionophores will continue to play a significant role in improving the efficiency of animal production in the future.
    Current issues in intestinal microbiology 10/2003; 4(2):43-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Ionophores, are used commonly for improving the feed efficiency and weight gain in ruminant nutrition. Ionophores increase the proportion of propionic acid and decrease the proportions of acetate and butyrate by modifying ruminal fermentation in the rumen. The increase in rumen propionic acid decrease the amount of methane produced in the rumen. Ionophores alter the flow of cations across cell membranes.
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    ABSTRACT: Three 10-d collection periods (April 4 to 14, early April, EApr; April 23 to May 3, late April, LApr; May 10 to 20, 1984, mid-May, MMay) were conducted to evaluate effects of no supplement (C), .5 kg-head-1.d-1 (as-fed basis) supplemental grain (steam-flaked milo, G) or G plus 170 mg monensin.head-1.d-1 (M) on forage intake and digestion by 12 ruminally cannulated beef steers (four/treatment; avg initially BW = 393 kg) grazing irrigated winter wheat pasture. Ruminal pH was greater (P less than .01) for M than for C or G during EApr but was not altered by treatments in LApr or MMay. Compared with C, ruminal NH3 was decreased (P less than .10) by G and M (5 h after supplementation) in EApr, decreased (P less than .05) by G (2h) and increased (P less than .05) by M (8 h) in LApr and decreased (P less than .10) by G (-1h) in MMay. Treatments had little influence on total VFA concentrations or on molar proportions of acetate and propionate. Butyrate molar proportion was decreased (P less than .10) by M during EApr and LApr, but not during MMay. Monensin increased (P less than .05) fluid passage rate compared with C and G in EApr but not in other periods, Particulate passage measurements did not differ (P greater than .10) among treatments within periods. Forage DM intake was not influenced (P greater than .10) by supplementation during any period. Extent of in situ forage DM disappearance was greater (P less than .10) for M than for C or G during EApr (12 and 30 h of incubation) but was not different (P greater than .10) in LApr or MMay. Incidence of frothy bloat was decreased (P less than .05) by M during EApr; this reduction may have been related to effects of M on ruminal pH, forage digestion and fluid passage.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/1990; 68(4):1139-50. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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