Serum testosterone concentrations have been determined during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy in the bonnet monkey, Macace rediata. During the cycle, there is an increase around the time of ovulation and a secondary peak in the late luteal phase. In pregnancy, there is a distinct peak around 23-25 days, a period which corresponds to the peak of chorionic gonadotropin reported by Atkinson et al. (1975) in Rhesus monkeys. Administration of exogenous hCG causes a significant rise in the serum testosterone level in cycling monkeys.
"In primates  and humans , the level of testosterone increases at around the time of ovulation and in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In mice, serum testosterone level was the highest before estrogen and luteinizing hormone (LH) peak which occur 24 hours before implantation . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Pinopode, a progesterone-dependent endometrial projection which appears during uterine receptivity period, participates in blastocyst implantation. Blastocyst loosely attaches to pinopode via L-selectin ligand (MECA-79). We hypothesized that pinopode and MECA-79 expressions were affected by testosterone. Therefore, the effect of testosterone on pinopode and MECA-79 expressions during uterine receptivity period were investigated.
Ovariectomized adult female rats received 8 days sex-steroid replacement intended to mimic hormonal changes in early pregnancy with day 6 to 8 represents uterine receptivity period. Testosterone (1 mg/kg/day) was injected together with flutamide or finasteride during the period of uterine receptivity. At the end of treatment, rats were sacrificed and uteri were removed. The existence of pinopodes in the endometrium was visualized by electron microscopy and uterine expression and distribution of MECA-79 protein were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) respectively.
Abundant pinopodes and MECA-79 expressions were observed in rats received normal steroid replacement regime. Administration of testosterone during uterine receptivity period reduced pinopodes and MECA-79 expressions, which were antagonized by flutamide and not finasteride.
The decrease in uterine pinopodes and MECA-79 expressions during uterine receptivity period by testosterone may cause failure of blastocyst to implant in conditions associated with high level of this hormone.
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 04/2014; 7(5):1967-76. · 1.89 Impact Factor
"Studies in non-human primates have demonstrated an increase in maternal serum androgens in early gestation (Rao and Kotagi, 1982; Castracane and Goldzieher, 1983; Ellinwood et al., 1989). This increase is limited to the duration of elevated serum concentrations of CG in these species, which declines before 40 days in the baboon and macaques (Hodgen, 1979). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated elevations in testosterone and androstenedione initiated within the cycle of conception in pregnant non-human primates, and minimal data in the human support the same picture. In the present study we have investigated a group of patients scheduled for artificial insemination with regular menstrual cycles. For this study all patients provided blood samples at 5 days after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surges and daily through the luteal phase and into early pregnancy (n = 12). Patients who did not become pregnant served as normal controls (n = 9). We have measured 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) as a marker of luteal activity not obscured by progesterone within the cycle of conception and testosterone and androstenedione as the major androgens. There were no significant changes in testosterone and androstenedione in the non-pregnant controls, but both testosterone and androstenedione were significantly elevated in the pregnant luteal phase, with the first increases occurring at 15 and 14 days respectively after the LH surge. Three of 12 pregnant patients did not demonstrate a dramatic increase in either testosterone or androstenedione and when examined more carefully a corresponding lack of increase in 17-OHP in those same subjects indicated less than optimal luteal activity, suggesting that these androgens were products of the corpus luteum. In three subjects in which consecutive non-pregnant and pregnant cycles were followed there was a dramatic increase from the non-pregnant luteal phase to the pregnant luteal phase indicating that the more important observation may be the concentrations of androgens in the conceptive luteal phase compared to some baseline, either previous luteal phase or even follicular phase. We have also studied changes in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and found that there was no significant contribution to this increase in androgens in early conception. These studies demonstrate a significant increase in both testosterone and androstenedione presumably of ovarian, specifically luteal, origin and that adrenal androgen production is not a factor in these changes.
Human Reproduction 03/1998; 13(2):460-4. DOI:10.1093/humrep/13.2.460 · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report is concerned with hormone concentrations accompanying sexual maturation in a highly 'masculinized' female mammal, the spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta. Plasma concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione and oestrogen were determined by radioimmunoassay in a longitudinal study of 12 female and eight male hyaenas 2.5-62.5 months old. Concentrations of testosterone were significantly higher in males than in females after 26.5 months of age, but earlier measurements did not differ between sexes. Mean testosterone concentrations in adult female hyaenas (0.4-0.5 ng ml-1) were similar to those in several other female mammals that do not display a 'masculine' profile, but mean concentrations of androstenedione (2.5-5.5 ng ml-1) in female hyaenas were significantly higher than in males (1.0-2.0 ng ml-1), at most ages. Oestrogen could not be detected (less than 0.03 ng ml-1) in females until about 14 months of age and then increased (to approximately 0.13 ng ml-1) between 18 and 30 months; oestrogen remained undetectable in males. This rise in oestrogen in females corresponded to nipple enlargement and to changes in the size and elasticity of the urogenital meatus, permitting copulation and parturition through the clitoris. Gonadectomy (two males and four females) at 4-7 months resulted in nondetectable concentrations of testosterone and oestrogen and a marked attenuation in androstenedione (to approximately 0.39 ng ml-1), indicating that the gonads are the major source of these three steroids. Gonadectomy also eliminated sex differences in weight, nipple development and elasticity of the urogenital meatus.
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