Biochemical studies of rat lung following exposure to potassium dichromate or chromium-rich welding fume particles.
ABSTRACT Rats were examined for biochemical changes at the lung surface and in lung tissue 1, 4, and 13 weeks after a single instillation of the soluble of insoluble fraction of stainless steel welding particles, or potassium dichromate containing concentrations of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) equivalent to those found in the welding particles. Most of the toxicity of the welding particles 1 week after instillation could be related to the content of soluble CrVI, though the insoluble particles also produced changes at the alveolar surface. The regression of inflammatory changes 4 and 13 weeks after instillation was probably due to the removal of soluble components such as CrVI from the lung.
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary infections have been reported to be increased in welders. Previous animal studies have indicated that manual metal arc, stainless steel welding fume (MMA-SS) increased susceptibility to lung infections. MMA-SS is composed of a complex of metals (e.g., iron, chromium, nickel). The objective was to determine which metal component of MMA-SS welding fume alters lung defense responses. At Day 0, rats were intratracheally instilled one time with saline or MMA-SS at a concentration of 2 mg/rat. Additional rats were treated with the metal constituents, Fe(2)O(3), NiO, or Cr(2)Na(2)O(7) alone or in combination, at concentrations that are present in the dose used for MMA-SS treatment. At Day 3, rats were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 10(3) Listeria monocytogenes. At Days 6, 8 and 10, homogenized left lungs were cultured, and colony-forming units were counted after an overnight incubation to assess pulmonary bacterial clearance. At Day 3 (prior to infection) and at Days 6, 8 and 10, right lungs were lavaged to recover cells and fluid from the airspaces to measure lung injury, inflammation, and cytokine secretion. The production of reactive oxygen species by phagocytes recovered from the lungs was measured. Exposure to MMA-SS, soluble Cr, or the mixture of all three metals before infection significantly increased bacterial lung burden and tissue damage when compared to control. Animals treated with NiO or Fe(2)O(3) did not differ from control. Animals pre-treated with soluble Cr had alterations in inflammation and in the production of different cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-6, IL-2, and IL-12) involved in lung immune responses. This study indicates that soluble Cr present in MMA-SS is likely the primary component responsible for the suppression of lung defense responses associated with stainless steel welding fumes.Journal of Immunotoxicology 05/2007; 4(2):117-27. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiology suggests that inhalation of welding fumes increases the susceptibility to lung infection. The effects of chemically distinct welding fumes on lung defense responses after bacterial infection were compared. Fume was collected during gas metal arc (GMA) or flux-covered manual metal arc (MMA) welding using two consumable electrodes: stainless steel (SS) or mild steel (MS). The fumes were separated into water-soluble and -insoluble fractions. The GMA-SS and GMA-MS fumes were found to be relatively insoluble, whereas the MMA-SS was highly water soluble, with the soluble fraction comprised of 87% Cr and 11% Mn. On day 0, male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with saline (vehicle control) or the different welding fumes (0.1 or 2 mg/rat). At day 3, the rats were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 10(3) Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, left lungs were removed, homogenized, cultured overnight, and colony-forming units were counted to assess pulmonary bacterial clearance. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on right lungs to recover phagocytes and BAL fluid to measure the production of nitric oxide (NO) and immunomodulatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-10. In contrast to the GMA-SS, GMA-MS, and saline groups, pretreatment with the highly water soluble MMA-SS fume caused significant body weight loss, extensive lung damage, and a dramatic reduction in pulmonary clearance of L. monocytogenes after infection. NO concentrations in BAL fluid and lung immunostaining of inducible NO synthase were dramatically increased in rats pretreated with MMA-SS before and after infection. MMA-SS treatment caused a significant decrease in IL-2 and significant increases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 after infection. In conclusion, pretreatment with MMA-SS increased production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) after infection, which are likely responsible for the elevation in lung inflammation and injury. In addition, MMA-SS treatment reduced IL-2 (involved in T cell proliferation) and enhanced IL-10 (involved in inhibiting macrophage function) after bacterial infection, which might result in a possible suppression in immune response and an increase in susceptibility to infection.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 12/2004; 200(3):206-18. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Welding fume has been categorized as "possibly carcinogenic" to humans. Our objectives were to characterize the lung response to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic metal-containing welding fumes and to determine if these fumes caused increased lung tumorigenicity in A/J mice, a lung tumor susceptible strain. We exposed male A/J and C57BL/6J, a lung tumor resistant strain, by pharyngeal aspiration four times (once every 3 days) to 85 mug of gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS), GMA-stainless steel (SS), or manual metal arc-SS (MMA-SS) fume, or to 25.5 mug soluble hexavalent chromium (S-Cr). Shams were exposed to saline vehicle. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was done at 2, 7, and 28 days post-exposure. For the lung tumor study, gross tumor counts and histopathological changes were assessed in A/J mice at 48 and 78 weeks post-exposure. BAL revealed notable strain-dependent differences with regards to the degree and resolution of the inflammatory response after exposure to the fumes. At 48 weeks, carcinogenic metal-containing GMA-SS fume caused the greatest increase in tumor multiplicity and incidence, but this was not different from sham. By 78 weeks, tumor incidence in the GMA-SS group versus sham approached significance (p = 0.057). A significant increase in perivascular/peribronchial lymphoid infiltrates for the GMA-SS group versus sham and an increased persistence of this fume in lung cells compared to the other welding fumes was found. The increased persistence of GMA-SS fume in combination with its metal composition may trigger a chronic, but mild, inflammatory state in the lung possibly enhancing tumorigenesis in this susceptible mouse strain.Particle and Fibre Toxicology 10/2008; 5:12. · 9.18 Impact Factor