Rats were examined for biochemical changes at the lung surface and in lung tissue 1, 4, and 13 weeks after a single instillation of the soluble of insoluble fraction of stainless steel welding particles, or potassium dichromate containing concentrations of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) equivalent to those found in the welding particles. Most of the toxicity of the welding particles 1 week after instillation could be related to the content of soluble CrVI, though the insoluble particles also produced changes at the alveolar surface. The regression of inflammatory changes 4 and 13 weeks after instillation was probably due to the removal of soluble components such as CrVI from the lung.
"Furthermore, previous data showed the soluble fraction of MMA-SS, which is abundant in Cr, generated free radicals and caused significant lung macrophage toxicity [9,20]. Therefore, S-Cr was used to investigate the acute lung toxicity of this metal, which has been implicated as the main reactive component of MMA-SS fume . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Welding fume has been categorized as "possibly carcinogenic" to humans. Our objectives were to characterize the lung response to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic metal-containing welding fumes and to determine if these fumes caused increased lung tumorigenicity in A/J mice, a lung tumor susceptible strain. We exposed male A/J and C57BL/6J, a lung tumor resistant strain, by pharyngeal aspiration four times (once every 3 days) to 85 mug of gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS), GMA-stainless steel (SS), or manual metal arc-SS (MMA-SS) fume, or to 25.5 mug soluble hexavalent chromium (S-Cr). Shams were exposed to saline vehicle. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was done at 2, 7, and 28 days post-exposure. For the lung tumor study, gross tumor counts and histopathological changes were assessed in A/J mice at 48 and 78 weeks post-exposure.
BAL revealed notable strain-dependent differences with regards to the degree and resolution of the inflammatory response after exposure to the fumes. At 48 weeks, carcinogenic metal-containing GMA-SS fume caused the greatest increase in tumor multiplicity and incidence, but this was not different from sham. By 78 weeks, tumor incidence in the GMA-SS group versus sham approached significance (p = 0.057). A significant increase in perivascular/peribronchial lymphoid infiltrates for the GMA-SS group versus sham and an increased persistence of this fume in lung cells compared to the other welding fumes was found.
The increased persistence of GMA-SS fume in combination with its metal composition may trigger a chronic, but mild, inflammatory state in the lung possibly enhancing tumorigenesis in this susceptible mouse strain.
"Fumes generated during MMA welding are generally more water-soluble than fumes collected from gas metal arc welding (GMA) processes, in which inert gases are used to protect the weld (Antonini et al., 1999). The presence of soluble metals (which are likely more bioavailable) have been shown to be important in the potential toxic responses observed after in vivo (Taylor et al., 2003; White et al., 1982) and in vitro (Antonini et al., 1999) welding fume exposure. It is possible that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes may increase the susceptibility to lung infection in welders. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiology suggests that inhalation of welding fumes increases the susceptibility to lung infection. The effects of chemically distinct welding fumes on lung defense responses after bacterial infection were compared. Fume was collected during gas metal arc (GMA) or flux-covered manual metal arc (MMA) welding using two consumable electrodes: stainless steel (SS) or mild steel (MS). The fumes were separated into water-soluble and -insoluble fractions. The GMA-SS and GMA-MS fumes were found to be relatively insoluble, whereas the MMA-SS was highly water soluble, with the soluble fraction comprised of 87% Cr and 11% Mn. On day 0, male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with saline (vehicle control) or the different welding fumes (0.1 or 2 mg/rat). At day 3, the rats were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 10(3) Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, left lungs were removed, homogenized, cultured overnight, and colony-forming units were counted to assess pulmonary bacterial clearance. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on right lungs to recover phagocytes and BAL fluid to measure the production of nitric oxide (NO) and immunomodulatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-10. In contrast to the GMA-SS, GMA-MS, and saline groups, pretreatment with the highly water soluble MMA-SS fume caused significant body weight loss, extensive lung damage, and a dramatic reduction in pulmonary clearance of L. monocytogenes after infection. NO concentrations in BAL fluid and lung immunostaining of inducible NO synthase were dramatically increased in rats pretreated with MMA-SS before and after infection. MMA-SS treatment caused a significant decrease in IL-2 and significant increases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 after infection. In conclusion, pretreatment with MMA-SS increased production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) after infection, which are likely responsible for the elevation in lung inflammation and injury. In addition, MMA-SS treatment reduced IL-2 (involved in T cell proliferation) and enhanced IL-10 (involved in inhibiting macrophage function) after bacterial infection, which might result in a possible suppression in immune response and an increase in susceptibility to infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rats were examined for changes at the lung surface and in lung tissue after inhalation of methanol vapour for up to 6 weeks at doses of up to 10 000 ppm. No significant changes were found in any of the parameters measured. Methanol vapour therefore does not appear to exert appreciable toxicity at these exposure levels towards rat lung.
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