Biochemical studies of rat lung following exposure to potassium dichromate or chromium-rich welding fume particles.
ABSTRACT Rats were examined for biochemical changes at the lung surface and in lung tissue 1, 4, and 13 weeks after a single instillation of the soluble of insoluble fraction of stainless steel welding particles, or potassium dichromate containing concentrations of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) equivalent to those found in the welding particles. Most of the toxicity of the welding particles 1 week after instillation could be related to the content of soluble CrVI, though the insoluble particles also produced changes at the alveolar surface. The regression of inflammatory changes 4 and 13 weeks after instillation was probably due to the removal of soluble components such as CrVI from the lung.
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ABSTRACT: The goals of this study were to examine acute lung damage and inflammation, as well as free radical production, caused by welding fumes of different chemical compositions and solubilities. The fumes were from a gas metal arc welding using a mild-steel (GMA-MS) or stainless-steel electrode (GMA-SS) and a manual metal arc welding using a stainless-steel electrode (MMA-SS), which was further separated into soluble and insoluble fractions. The MMA-SS was the only fume to contain soluble chromium. Free radical production was observed only in suspensions of MMA-SS fume under various conditions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with either a welding fume suspension at 2 mg/rat or a saline vehicle, and various parameters of inflammation and damage were measured at 3 h and days 1, 3, and 6. Only the MMA-SS treatment caused a continued increase in lung weight until day 6 and elevated lipid peroxidation at day 3. All of the fumes caused increases in macrophages and neutrophils obtained by lavage, but the increased cellularity was extended through day 6 following the MMA-SS treatment only. Only the MMA-SS treatment led to an increased recovery of eosinophils and damage to the alveolar-capillary barrier. While all of the fumes produced increases in cytotoxicity, the MMA-SS treatment caused the maximal response at day 3. These findings indicate that different welding fumes caused varied responses in the lungs of rats, correlated to their metal composition and ability to produce free radicals. Additionally, both the soluble and insoluble fractions of the MMA-SS fume were required to produce most effects, indicating that the responses are not dependent exclusively on the soluble metals.Toxicological Sciences 10/2003; 75(1):181-91. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Welders are exposed to fumes with different metal profiles. The goals of this study were to compare lung responses in rats after treatment with chemically different welding fumes and to examine the extrapulmonary fate of metals after deposition in the lungs. Rats were treated by intratracheal instillation (0.5 mg/rat, once a week for 7 weeks) with gas metal arc-mild steel (GMAW-MS) or manual metal arc-hardsurfacing (MMAW-HS) welding fumes. Controls were treated with saline. At 1, 4, 35, and 105 days after the last treatment, lung injury and inflammation were measured, and elemental analysis of different organs was determined to assess metal clearance. The MMAW-HS fume was highly water-soluble and chemically more complex with higher levels of soluble Mn and Cr compared to the GMAW-MS fume. Treatments with the GMAW-MS fume had no effect on toxicity when compared with controls. The MMAW-HS fume induced significant lung damage early after treatment that remained elevated until 35 days. Metals associated with each fume sample was cleared at different rates from the lungs. Mn was cleared from the lungs at a faster rate and to a greater extent compared to the other metals over the 105-day recovery period. Mn and Cr in the MMAW-HS fume translocated from the respiratory tract and deposited in other organs. Importantly, increased deposition of Mn, but not other metals, was observed in discrete brain regions, including dopamine-rich areas (e.g., striatum and midbrain).Inhalation Toxicology 08/2010; 22(10):805-16. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiology suggests that inhalation of welding fumes increases the susceptibility to lung infection. The effects of chemically distinct welding fumes on lung defense responses after bacterial infection were compared. Fume was collected during gas metal arc (GMA) or flux-covered manual metal arc (MMA) welding using two consumable electrodes: stainless steel (SS) or mild steel (MS). The fumes were separated into water-soluble and -insoluble fractions. The GMA-SS and GMA-MS fumes were found to be relatively insoluble, whereas the MMA-SS was highly water soluble, with the soluble fraction comprised of 87% Cr and 11% Mn. On day 0, male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with saline (vehicle control) or the different welding fumes (0.1 or 2 mg/rat). At day 3, the rats were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 10(3) Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, left lungs were removed, homogenized, cultured overnight, and colony-forming units were counted to assess pulmonary bacterial clearance. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on right lungs to recover phagocytes and BAL fluid to measure the production of nitric oxide (NO) and immunomodulatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-10. In contrast to the GMA-SS, GMA-MS, and saline groups, pretreatment with the highly water soluble MMA-SS fume caused significant body weight loss, extensive lung damage, and a dramatic reduction in pulmonary clearance of L. monocytogenes after infection. NO concentrations in BAL fluid and lung immunostaining of inducible NO synthase were dramatically increased in rats pretreated with MMA-SS before and after infection. MMA-SS treatment caused a significant decrease in IL-2 and significant increases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 after infection. In conclusion, pretreatment with MMA-SS increased production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) after infection, which are likely responsible for the elevation in lung inflammation and injury. In addition, MMA-SS treatment reduced IL-2 (involved in T cell proliferation) and enhanced IL-10 (involved in inhibiting macrophage function) after bacterial infection, which might result in a possible suppression in immune response and an increase in susceptibility to infection.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 12/2004; 200(3):206-18. · 3.98 Impact Factor