The effect of single morning and evening rinses of chlorhexidine on the development of tooth staining and plaque accumulation. A blind cross-over trial.
ABSTRACT A dietary aetiology for tooth staining associated with the use of chlorhexidine has been postulated. The time related activity of chlorhexidine would therefore suggest that evening rinsing would result in less staining than morning rinsing. This study measured tooth and tongue staining and plaque accumulation in a group of 18 volunteers, rinsing once at night or once in the morning with chlorhexidine in a blind cross-over design. Beverage intake during two 10-day periods was prescribed. Significantly more tooth staining, but not tongue staining, was seen with morning rinsing. Plaque accumulation showed a trend to more plaque with morning rinsing, which was not significant. The findings would be consistent with a dietary aetiology for tooth staining. However, these results emphasise the considerable duration of activity of chlorhexidine on surfaces in the oral cavity and the theory of progressive desorption of chlorhexidine from the tooth surface is questioned.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the persistence of staining after the use of chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse. Twenty-four subjects (nine women and 15 men) who underwent periodontal therapy and were prescribed the use of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse participated in this study. Color values of maxillary central incisors, canines, and first molars were recorded at baseline; 3 days; and 1, 2, and 3 weeks of twice-daily chlorhexidine gluconate use with a digital intraoral colorimeter according to the CIE L*a*b* coordinates. While color-change (Delta E) values showed significant differences (P=.020) at different time points (10.1, 8.9, 8.9, 9.4, after 3 days and 1, 2, and 3 weeks, respectively), the duration of chlorhexidine gluconate use did not significantly affect the results (P=.873) (two-way ANOVA, Tukey test). No significant difference was found among Delta L* (P=.070), Delta a* (P=.169), and Delta b* (P=.691) values at any time point (one-way ANOVA). Measurements of baseline to day 3 differences showed significantly higher Delta E values than those at other time points (P<.05), but this change remained nonsignificant after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of chlorhexidine gluconate use (P>.05) (Tukey test). The highest visible staining occurred on the first molars at all time points (83%, 79%, 79%, and 96% after 3 days and 1, 2, and 3 weeks, respectively) compared to the other teeth evaluated. The staining effect of chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse on natural dentition should be expected to be the highest in the first few days of use.Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany: 1985) 03/2011; 42(3):213-23. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To determine (i) effects of lawsone methyl ether (LME) mouthwash on antifungal drug resistance of oral Candida, (ii) effects of LME mouthwash on changes in genotype of oral Candida, and (iii) allergy and subjects' satisfaction on LME mouthwash in comparison with chlorhexidine (CHX). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was conducted in HIV-infected subjects and denture wearers receiving either LME or CHX mouthwash. Candidal culture by oral rinse technique was performed as baseline and after using the mouthwash for 2 weeks. Antifungal drug resistance and changes in genotype of oral Candida were assessed by microdilution assay, inverted repeat polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assays, respectively. Allergy and subjects' satisfaction on the mouthwashes were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Twenty-nine HIV-infected subjects (age range, 26-54 years; mean age, 41 years) and 38 denture wearers (age range, 27-76 years; mean age, 55 years) were enrolled. C. albicans was the most common specie found in both groups followed by C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata. Neither antifungal drug resistance nor significant changes in genotyping of Candida were noted among those receiving LME mouthwash. Subjects' satisfaction on taste and smell of LME mouthwash was comparable to that of CHX. CONCLUSIONS: Use of LME mouthwash for 2 weeks neither led to antifungal drug resistance nor significant changes in genotype of oral Candida. Thus, LME may be an alternative mouthwash in prophylaxis of oral candidiasis among those at risk of developing the disease.Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 04/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The quality of the consumed drinking water may affect oral health. For example, the presence of iron in drinking water can cause aesthetic problems related to changes in dental enamel color. This study assessed the prevalence of extrinsic enamel color changes and their relationship with the quality of the water in the town of Caapiranga/AM-Brazil. Three hundred and forty six residents of the urban area were examined, and they also answered a questionnaire on eating habits and self-perceived oral health. As the initial results indicated an insufficient number of observations for the application of variance analysis (one-way ANOVA), the Student t test was chosen to compare levels of iron content in the water coming from two sources. The change in tooth color had a prevalence of 5.78% (20 people). The majority of the population (n = 261, 75.43%) consumed well water. Those who presented extrinsic stains were uncomfortable with the appearance of their teeth (15.09%). We conclude that while there is excess of iron in the water in this region of Brazil, no association between extrinsic stains on the enamel and the level of iron in the water was found. There was a low prevalence of extrinsic stains in Caaparinga, being found only in children and adolescents. In the present study, an association between the presence of stains and the consumption of açai was determined, and those who presented them felt uncomfortable about their aesthetics.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 01/2012; 9(10):3530-9. · 2.00 Impact Factor