Herniation pit of the femoral neck.

American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.9). 07/1982; 138(6):1115-21.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A round to oval radiolucency surrounded by a thin zone of sclerosis is often identified in the proximal superior quadrant of adult femoral necks. Although usually recognized as incidental and benign, these radiolucencies may be of clinical concern in patients with hip symptoms. The true nature and genesis of these radiolucencies have not been explained. This article relates these radiolucencies to common acquired degenerative changes developing on the surface of the femoral neck in adults (the reaction area) and shows that the radiolucency represents a subcortical pit or cavity formed by herniation of soft tissue contents through defects in the surface of the reaction area. The formation of this pit and its relation to the commonly seen femoral neck radiolucency has not been previously described. The name "herniation pit" is suggested for these lesions.

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    ABSTRACT: The role of herniation pits as a radiographic indicator is still debated. This case-control study was to determine (1) the prevalence and sizes of herniation pits and (2) the relationship between herniation pits and femoral and acetabular bony morphology consistent with femoroacetabular impingement. This comparative study was performed on 151 patients (151 hips; median patient age 46 years; range 16-73 years) with mechanical symptoms, who underwent multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) arthrography (the symptomatic group), and an age-, gender-, site (left or right)-, and time (at diagnosis)-matched group of control patients that underwent multi-detector computed tomography due to an ureter stone (the asymptomatic group). Two orthopaedic surgeons reviewed images to evaluate the prevalence, sizes of herniation pits, and relationship with morphological abnormality. The prevalences of herniation pits in symptomatic and asymptomatic groups were 23.8 % (36/151) and 3.3 % (5/151), respectively (OR 9.14, 95 % CI 3.47-24.30; p < 0.001). Herniation pits were found to be significantly associated with pincer-type abnormality (p = 0.034), especially central acetabular retroversion (p < 0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of herniation pits is higher in symptomatic patients with femoroacetabular impingement, and herniation pits are associated with central acetabular retroversion. Furthermore, herniation pits were also found to be a useful predictor of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. The goal of this study was to research the association of femoral bumps and herniation pits with the overlap-ratio of the cross-over sign. Methods. Pelvic X-rays and CT-scans of 2925 patients with good assessment of the anterior and the posterior acetabular wall and absence of neutral pelvic tilt were enrolled in the investigation. Finally pelvic X-rays were assessed for the presence of a positive cross-over sign, and CT-scans for a femoral bump or a herniation pit. Additionally, if a positive cross-over sign was discovered, the overlap-ratio was calculated. Results. A femoral bump was found in 53.3% (n = 1559), and a herniation pit in 27.2% (n = 796) of all hips. The overlap-ratio correlated positively with the presence of a femoral bump, while a negative correlation between the overlap-ratio and the presence of a herniation pit was found. The latter was significantly more often combined with a femoral bump than without. Conclusions. We detected an increased prevalence of femoral bump with increasing overlap-ratios of the cross-over sign indicating a relation to biomechanical stress. The observed decreased prevalence of herniation pits with increasing overlap-ratios could be explained by reduced mechanical stress due to nontightened iliofemoral ligament in the presence of retroversion of the acetabulum.
    Advances in Orthopedics. 01/2014; 2014:1-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Plain radiography has been the mainstay of imaging assessment in osteoarthritis for over 50 years, but it does have limitations. Here we present the methodology and results of a new technique for identifying, grading, and mapping the severity and spatial distribution of osteoarthritic disease features at the hip in 3D with clinical computed tomography (CT). Design CT imaging of 456 hips from 230 adult female volunteers (mean age 66 ± 17 yrs) was reviewed using 3D multiplanar reformatting to identify bone-related radiological features of osteoarthritis, namely osteophytes, subchondral cysts and joint space narrowing. Scoresheets dividing up the femoral head, head-neck region and the joint space were used to register the location and severity of each feature (scored from 0 to 3). Novel 3D cumulative feature severity maps were then created to display where the most severe disease features from each individual were anatomically located across the cohort. Results Feature severity maps showed a propensity for osteophytes at the inferoposterior and superolateral femoral head-neck junction. Subchondral cysts were a less common and less localised phenomenon. Joint space narrowing <1.5mm was recorded in at least one sector of 83% of hips, but most frequently in the posterolateral joint space. Conclusions This is the first description of hip osteoarthritis using unenhanced clinical CT in which we describe the co-localisation of posterior osteophytes and joint space narrowing for the first time. We believe this technique can perform several important roles in future osteoarthritis research, including phenotyping and sensitive disease assessment in 3D.
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