Prolonged survival of Serratia marcescens in chlorhexidine.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 01/1982; 42(6):1093-102.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT During an outbreak of Serratia marcescens infections at our hospital, we discovered widespread contamination of the 2% chlorhexidine hand-washing solution by S. marcescens. Examination by electron microscopy of the sides of bottles in which this solution was stored revealed that microorganisms were embedded in a fibrous matrix. Bacteria, free in the liquid, were morphologically abnormal, showing cell wall disruption or cytoplasmic changes. Furthermore, bacteria adherent to the walls of the storage jugs and embedded in this fibrous matrix also had morphologically abnormal cytoplasm. Despite these changes, viable S. marcescens organisms were recovered from the fluid during a storage period of 27 months. The concentration of chlorhexidine required to inhibit these strains of Serratia was 1,024 microgram/ml; however, the organism could survive in concentrations of up to 20,000 micrograms/ml. Additional studies are needed to define the mechanism(s) that allows such bacteria to contaminate and survive in disinfectants.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Citrus hystrix de Candolle (Rutaceae), an edible plant regularly used as a food ingredient, possesses antibacterial activity, but there is no current data on the activity against bacteria causing periodontal diseases. Objective: C. hystrix essential oil from leaves and peel were investigated for antibiofilm formation and mode of action against bacteria causing periodontal diseases. Materials and methods: In vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm formation activities were determined by broth microdilution and time kill assay. Mode of action of essential oil was observed by SEM and the active component was identified by bioautography and GC/MS. Results and discussion: C. hystrix leaves oil exhibited antibacterial activity at the MICs of 1.06 mg/mL for P. gingivalis and S. mutans and 2.12 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. Leaf oil at 4.25 mg/mL showed antibiofilm formation activity with 99% inhibition. The lethal effects on P. gingivalis were observed within 2 and 4 h after treated with 4 × MIC and 2 × MIC, respectively. S. sanguinis and S. mutans were completely killed within 4 and 8 h after exposed to 4 × MIC and 2 × MIC of oil. MICs of tested strains showed 4 times reduction suggesting synergistic interaction of oil and chlorhexidine. Bacterial outer membrane was disrupted after treatment with leaves oil. Additionally, citronellal was identified as the major active compound of C. hystrix oil. Conclusions: C. hystrix leaf oil could be used as a natural active compound or in combination with chlorhexidine in mouthwash preparations to prevent the growth of bacteria associated with periodontal diseases and biofilm formation.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 10/2013; · 1.21 Impact Factor


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