Article

Prolonged survival of Serratia marcescens in chlorhexidine.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 01/1982; 42(6):1093-102.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT During an outbreak of Serratia marcescens infections at our hospital, we discovered widespread contamination of the 2% chlorhexidine hand-washing solution by S. marcescens. Examination by electron microscopy of the sides of bottles in which this solution was stored revealed that microorganisms were embedded in a fibrous matrix. Bacteria, free in the liquid, were morphologically abnormal, showing cell wall disruption or cytoplasmic changes. Furthermore, bacteria adherent to the walls of the storage jugs and embedded in this fibrous matrix also had morphologically abnormal cytoplasm. Despite these changes, viable S. marcescens organisms were recovered from the fluid during a storage period of 27 months. The concentration of chlorhexidine required to inhibit these strains of Serratia was 1,024 microgram/ml; however, the organism could survive in concentrations of up to 20,000 micrograms/ml. Additional studies are needed to define the mechanism(s) that allows such bacteria to contaminate and survive in disinfectants.

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    ABSTRACT: Biofilms of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 were developed on stainless steel chips in trypti-case soy broth (TSB), 1/5 dilution of TSB, 0.1 % Bacto peptone (BP) and a minimal salts medium (MSM) supplemented with 0.04% of one of the following carbon sources: glucose, glycerol, lactose, mannose, succinic acid, sodium pyruvate or lactic acid. It was found that biofilms developed faster and a higher number of adherent cells (ca. 10 6 CFU /cm 2) were recovered when the organisms were grown in the low nutrient media. Regardless of the carbon source, biofilms developed in MSM consisted of shorter bacterial cells and thicker extracellular matrix (ECM), with glucose as the best substrate for stable biofilm formation. Fewer bacteria in initial attachment, non-hydrophobicity of bacterial cells, lack of ECM formation and easy detachment of the biofilm bacteria may contribute to poor biofilm formation in TSB. ECM is probably important for the stability of biofilms; however, at 10°C and under anaerobic conditions, ECM seems to be unnecessary.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 07/1995; 26(2):147-164. · 3.43 Impact Factor

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