Prolonged survival of Serratia marcescens in chlorhexidine.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 01/1982; 42(6):1093-102.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT During an outbreak of Serratia marcescens infections at our hospital, we discovered widespread contamination of the 2% chlorhexidine hand-washing solution by S. marcescens. Examination by electron microscopy of the sides of bottles in which this solution was stored revealed that microorganisms were embedded in a fibrous matrix. Bacteria, free in the liquid, were morphologically abnormal, showing cell wall disruption or cytoplasmic changes. Furthermore, bacteria adherent to the walls of the storage jugs and embedded in this fibrous matrix also had morphologically abnormal cytoplasm. Despite these changes, viable S. marcescens organisms were recovered from the fluid during a storage period of 27 months. The concentration of chlorhexidine required to inhibit these strains of Serratia was 1,024 microgram/ml; however, the organism could survive in concentrations of up to 20,000 micrograms/ml. Additional studies are needed to define the mechanism(s) that allows such bacteria to contaminate and survive in disinfectants.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Microbicides (biocides) play an important role in the prevention and treatment of infections. Whilst there is currently little evidence for in-use treatment failures attributable to acquired reductions in microbicide susceptibility, the susceptibility of some bacteria can be reduced by sub-lethal level laboratory exposure to certain agents. In this investigation, a range of environmental bacterial isolates (11 genera, 18 species) were repeatedly exposed to four microbicides; cetrimide, chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and triclosan; and a cationic antimicrobial peptide (apoEdpL-W). Susceptibilities (MIC and MBC) were determined before and after ten passages (P10) in the presence of antimicrobial using a previously validated exposure system and then following a further ten passages without antimicrobial (X10) to determine the stability of any adaptations. Bacteria exhibiting over 4-fold increases in MBC were further examined for alterations in biofilm forming ability. Following microbicide exposure, ≥4-fold decreases in susceptibility (MIC or MBC) occurred for cetrimide (5/18 bacteria), apoEdpL-W (7/18), chlorhexidine (8/18), PHMB (8/18) and triclosan (11/18). Out of the 34 ≥4-fold increases in MIC, 15 were fully revertible, 13 were partially revertible and 6 were non-revertible. Of the 26 ≥4-fold increases in MBC, 7 were fully revertible, 14 were partially revertible and 5 were non-revertible. Significant decreases in biofilm formation in P10 strains occurred for apoEdpL-W (1/18 bacteria), chlorhexidine (1/18) and triclosan (2/18), whilst significant increases occurred for apoEdpL-W (1/18) triclosan (1/18) and chlorhexidine (2/18). These data suggest that the stability of induced changes in microbicide insusceptibility varies but may be stable for some combinations of bacterium and microbicide.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2014; · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 􀇔􀇭􀇯􀇷􀇳􀇾􀇻􀈁􀇺􀇰􀋚􀀁􀇥􀇱􀇾􀇾􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇭􀀁􀇹􀇭􀇾􀇯􀇱􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇺􀇿􀋙􀀁􀇭􀀁􀈁􀇮􀇵􀇽􀈁􀇵􀈀􀇻􀈁􀇿􀀁􀇾􀇻􀇰􀋭􀇿􀇴􀇭􀇼􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇳􀇾􀇭􀇹􀋭􀇺􀇱􀇳􀇭􀈀􀇵􀈂􀇱􀀁􀇮􀇭􀇯􀈀􀇱􀇾􀇵􀈁􀇹􀀁􀇵􀇿􀀁􀇭􀇺􀀁􀇻􀇼􀇼􀇻􀇾􀈀􀈁􀇺􀇵􀇿􀈀􀇵􀇯􀀁􀇼􀇭􀈀􀇴􀇻􀇳􀇱􀇺􀀁􀇯􀇭􀈁􀇿􀇵􀇺􀇳􀀁􀇭􀀁􀇼􀇸􀇱􀈀􀇴􀇻􀇾􀇭􀀁􀇻􀇲􀀁 􀇺􀇻􀇿􀇻􀇯􀇻􀇹􀇵􀇭􀇸􀀁 􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀇿􀀁 􀇵􀇺􀀁 􀇴􀈁􀇹􀇭􀇺􀇿􀀁 􀇵􀇺􀇯􀇸􀈁􀇰􀇵􀇺􀇳􀀁 􀈃􀇻􀈁􀇺􀇰􀀁 􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀇿􀋘􀀁 􀇦􀇴􀇱􀈅􀀁 􀇭􀇾􀇱􀀁 􀇵􀇰􀇱􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇲􀇵􀇱􀇰􀀁 􀇵􀇺􀀁 􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇵􀇾􀀁 􀇱􀇯􀇻􀇸􀇻􀇳􀇵􀇯􀇭􀇸􀀁 􀇺􀇵􀇯􀇴􀇱􀇿􀀁 􀇮􀈅􀀁 􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇵􀇾􀀁 􀇾􀇱􀇰􀀁 􀇼􀇵􀇳􀇹􀇱􀇺􀈀􀋙􀀁 􀇼􀇾􀇻􀇰􀇵􀇳􀇵􀇻􀇿􀇵􀇺􀋘􀀁􀇛􀇺􀇲􀇻􀇾􀇹􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀀁􀇯􀇻􀇺􀇯􀇱􀇾􀇺􀇵􀇺􀇳􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇿􀇱􀀁􀇻􀇾􀇳􀇭􀇺􀇵􀇿􀇹􀇿􀀁􀇵􀇺􀀁􀇭􀇿􀇿􀇻􀇯􀇵􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀀁􀈃􀇵􀈀􀇴􀀁􀈃􀇻􀈁􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀇿􀀁􀇭􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇿􀇼􀇭􀇾􀇿􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇺􀀁􀇻􀈁􀇾􀀁􀇸􀇻􀇯􀇭􀇸􀇵􀈀􀈅􀋘􀀁􀇦􀇴􀇵􀇿􀀁􀇿􀈀􀈁􀇰􀈅􀀁􀈃􀇭􀇿􀀁 􀇰􀇱􀇿􀇵􀇳􀇺􀇱􀇰􀀁􀈀􀇻􀀁􀇰􀇱􀈀􀇱􀇾􀇹􀇵􀇺􀇱􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇼􀇾􀇱􀈂􀇭􀇸􀇱􀇺􀇯􀇱􀀁􀇻􀇲􀀁􀇥􀇱􀇾􀇾􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇭􀀁􀇹􀇭􀇾􀇯􀇱􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇺􀇿􀀁􀇵􀇺􀀁􀈃􀇻􀈁􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀇿􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇵􀇾􀀁􀇭􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇹􀇵􀇯􀇾􀇻􀇮􀇵􀇭􀇸􀀁􀇿􀈁􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇼􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇸􀇵􀈀􀈅􀀁􀇼􀇾􀇻􀇲􀇵􀇸􀇱􀋘􀀁 􀇘􀇵􀇺􀇰􀇵􀇺􀇳􀇿􀋚􀀁􀇩􀇻􀈁􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇿􀈃􀇭􀇮􀇿􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇼􀈁􀇿􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇯􀇻􀇸􀇸􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇲􀇾􀇻􀇹􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇼􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇱􀇺􀈀􀇿􀀁􀇭􀇲􀈀􀇱􀇾􀀁􀇾􀇱􀇯􀇱􀇵􀈂􀇵􀇺􀇳􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇻􀇾􀇹􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇯􀇻􀇺􀇿􀇱􀇺􀈀􀀁􀇲􀇾􀇻􀇹􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇹􀋘􀀁􀇥􀇭􀇹􀇼􀇸􀇱􀇿􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇻􀇯􀈁􀇸􀇭􀈀􀇱􀇰􀀁 􀇻􀇺􀀁􀇭􀇼􀇼􀇾􀇻􀇼􀇾􀇵􀇭􀈀􀇱􀀁􀇹􀇱􀇰􀇵􀇭􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇯􀈁􀇸􀈀􀈁􀇾􀇱􀇿􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇯􀈁􀇮􀇭􀈀􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇭􀈀􀀁􀋅􀋉􀌎􀇕􀀁􀇭􀇱􀇾􀇻􀇮􀇵􀇯􀇭􀇸􀇸􀈅􀋘􀀁􀇕􀈁􀇸􀈀􀈁􀇾􀇱􀇿􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇱􀈄􀇭􀇹􀇵􀇺􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇹􀇭􀇯􀇾􀇻􀇿􀇯􀇻􀇼􀇵􀇯􀇭􀇸􀇸􀈅􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇮􀇭􀇯􀈀􀇱􀇾􀇵􀇭􀇸􀀁􀇵􀇿􀇻􀇸􀇭􀈀􀇱􀇿􀀁 􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇳􀇾􀇭􀇹􀀁􀇿􀈀􀇭􀇵􀇺􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇹􀇵􀇯􀇾􀇻􀇿􀇯􀇻􀇼􀇵􀇯􀇭􀇸􀇸􀈅􀀁􀇱􀈄􀇭􀇹􀇵􀇺􀇱􀇰􀋘􀀁􀇢􀇭􀈀􀇴􀇻􀇳􀇱􀇺􀇿􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇰􀇱􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇲􀇵􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇮􀈅􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇵􀇾􀀁􀇾􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇼􀇵􀇳􀇹􀇱􀇺􀈀􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇻􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇾􀀁􀇮􀇵􀇻􀇯􀇴􀇱􀇹􀇵􀇯􀇭􀇸􀀁􀈀􀇱􀇿􀈀􀇿􀋘􀀁􀇦􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇝􀇵􀇾􀇮􀈅􀋭 􀇔􀇭􀈁􀇱􀇾􀀁􀇰􀇵􀇿􀇷􀀁􀇰􀇵􀇲􀇲􀈁􀇿􀇵􀇻􀇺􀀁􀇹􀇱􀈀􀇴􀇻􀇰􀀁􀈃􀇭􀇿􀀁􀈁􀇿􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇲􀇻􀇾􀀁􀇭􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇻􀈀􀇵􀇯􀀁􀇿􀈁􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇼􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇸􀇵􀈀􀈅􀀁􀈀􀇱􀇿􀈀􀇵􀇺􀇳􀋘􀀁􀇡􀈁􀈀􀀁􀇻􀇲􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀋄􀋇􀋃􀀁􀈃􀇻􀈁􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇿􀇭􀇹􀇼􀇸􀇱􀇿􀀁􀇯􀇻􀇸􀇸􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇰􀈁􀇾􀇵􀇺􀇳􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇿􀈀􀈁􀇰􀈅􀀁􀇼􀇱􀇾􀇵􀇻􀇰􀋙􀀁 􀋄􀋇􀀁􀋴􀋋􀋘􀋋􀌇􀋵􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇥􀇱􀇾􀇾􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇭􀀁􀇹􀇭􀇾􀇯􀇱􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇺􀇿􀋘􀀁􀇟􀇭􀇸􀇱􀇿􀀁􀋶􀋃􀋊􀀁􀋴􀋉􀋄􀋘􀋂􀌇􀋵􀋷􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇹􀇻􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇿􀈁􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇼􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇸􀇱􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇭􀇺􀀁􀇲􀇱􀇹􀇭􀇸􀇱􀇿􀀁􀋶􀋉􀀁􀋴􀋄􀋊􀋘􀋂􀌇􀋵􀋷􀋙􀀁􀇮􀈁􀈀􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀈃􀇭􀇿􀀁􀇺􀇻􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇸􀈁􀇱􀇺􀇯􀇱􀀁􀇻􀇲􀀁 􀇳􀇱􀇺􀇰􀇱􀇾􀀁􀇻􀇺􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇾􀇭􀈀􀇱􀇿􀀁􀇻􀇲􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀀁􀋴􀇼􀌥􀋂􀋘􀋅􀋵􀋘􀀁􀇦􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇿􀈁􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇼􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇸􀇵􀈀􀈅􀀁􀇼􀇾􀇻􀇲􀇵􀇸􀇱􀀁􀇻􀇲􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇿􀇻􀇸􀇭􀈀􀇱􀇿􀀁􀈀􀇻􀀁􀇭􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇻􀈀􀇵􀇯􀇿􀀁􀈀􀇱􀇿􀈀􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇾􀇭􀇺􀇳􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇮􀇱􀈀􀈃􀇱􀇱􀇺􀀁􀋆􀌇􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀋉􀋈􀌇􀋘􀀁􀇦􀇴􀇱􀀁 􀇹􀇻􀇿􀈀􀀁􀇿􀇱􀇺􀇿􀇵􀈀􀇵􀈂􀇱􀀁􀇭􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇻􀈀􀇵􀇯􀀁􀈃􀇭􀇿􀀁􀇸􀇱􀈂􀇻􀇲􀇸􀇻􀈄􀇭􀇯􀇵􀇺􀀁􀋶􀋃􀋋􀀁􀋴􀋉􀋈􀌇􀋵􀋷􀀁􀇲􀇻􀇸􀇸􀇻􀈃􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇮􀈅􀀁􀇳􀇱􀇺􀈀􀇭􀇹􀇵􀇯􀇵􀇺􀀁􀋶􀋃􀋉􀀁􀋴􀋈􀋊􀌇􀋵􀋷􀋘􀀁􀇓􀇸􀇸􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇿􀇻􀇸􀇭􀈀􀇱􀇿􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇭􀇮􀇿􀇻􀇸􀈁􀈀􀇱􀇸􀈅􀀁􀇾􀇱􀇿􀇵􀇿􀈀􀇭􀇺􀈀􀀁􀈀􀇻􀀁 􀇭􀇹􀇼􀇵􀇯􀇵􀇸􀇸􀇵􀇺􀋘􀀁 􀇕􀇻􀇺􀇯􀇸􀈁􀇿􀇵􀇻􀇺􀋚􀀁􀇘􀇸􀈁􀇻􀇾􀇻􀇽􀈁􀇵􀇺􀇻􀇸􀇻􀇺􀇱􀇿􀀁􀇴􀇭􀈂􀇱􀀁􀇿􀇴􀇻􀈃􀇺􀀁􀇭􀀁􀇳􀇻􀇻􀇰􀀁􀇭􀇯􀈀􀇵􀈂􀇵􀈀􀈅􀀁􀇭􀇳􀇭􀇵􀇺􀇿􀈀􀀁􀇥􀇱􀇾􀇾􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇭􀀁􀇹􀇭􀇾􀇯􀇱􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇺􀇿􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇿􀇴􀇻􀈁􀇸􀇰􀀁􀇮􀇱􀀁􀇯􀇻􀇺􀇿􀇵􀇰􀇱􀇾􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇭􀇿􀀁􀇭􀀁􀇲􀇵􀇾􀇿􀈀􀀁􀇸􀇵􀇺􀇱􀀁􀇭􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇻􀈀􀇵􀇯􀀁 􀇭􀇳􀇭􀇵􀇺􀇿􀈀􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇿􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀇿􀀁􀇵􀇺􀀁􀇻􀈁􀇾􀀁􀇸􀇻􀇯􀇭􀇸􀇵􀈀􀈅􀋘􀀁􀇦􀇻􀀁􀇿􀈀􀇭􀈅􀀁􀇭􀇴􀇱􀇭􀇰􀀁􀇵􀇺􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇲􀇵􀇳􀇴􀈀􀀁􀇭􀇳􀇭􀇵􀇺􀇿􀈀􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇿􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀇿􀋙􀀁􀇱􀇲􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀈂􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀀁􀇯􀇻􀇺􀈀􀇾􀇻􀇸􀀁􀇿􀇴􀇻􀈁􀇸􀇰􀀁􀇮􀇱􀀁􀇼􀇾􀇭􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇯􀇱􀇰􀋙􀀁 􀇭􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇻􀈀􀇵􀇯􀀁􀈁􀇿􀇭􀇳􀇱􀀁􀇿􀇴􀇻􀈁􀇸􀇰􀀁􀇮􀇱􀀁􀇻􀇼􀈀􀇵􀇹􀇵􀈆􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇱􀇹􀇼􀇵􀇾􀇵􀇯􀇭􀇸􀀁􀈀􀇾􀇱􀇭􀈀􀇹􀇱􀇺􀈀􀀁􀇾􀇱􀇰􀈁􀇯􀇱􀇰􀋘
    ELMEDNIFICO JOURNAL. 01/2014; 2(3).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Serratia marcescens produces biosurfactant serrawettin, essential for its population migration behavior. Serrawettin W1 was revealed to be an antibiotic serratamolide that makes it significant for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein sequence analysis. Four nucleotide and amino-acid sequences from local strains analyzed through bioinformatics showed high confidence prediction of serrawettin. Database comparison analysis resulted to high similarity of the nucleotide sequence to the swrW gene of 88 to 94%, the homologous protein sequence to the serrawettin W1 synthetase protein ranging from 85 to 89%, presence of condensation domain from the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) family that synthesize peptide antibiotics and strong relation to the predicted surfactin synthetase structure. Further protein analysis showed high identical multiple alignment having conserved regions and the predicted structure representation was identified as putative surfactin a synthetase c (srfa-c), a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase termination module with 100% confidence. These nucleotide and protein sequence analysis of the putative swrW gene provides vital information on the versatility of S. marcescens as a pathogen of diverse hosts and an impetus for further genetic manipulation for practical applications.


Available from