Prolonged survival of Serratia marcescens in chlorhexidine.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 01/1982; 42(6):1093-102.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT During an outbreak of Serratia marcescens infections at our hospital, we discovered widespread contamination of the 2% chlorhexidine hand-washing solution by S. marcescens. Examination by electron microscopy of the sides of bottles in which this solution was stored revealed that microorganisms were embedded in a fibrous matrix. Bacteria, free in the liquid, were morphologically abnormal, showing cell wall disruption or cytoplasmic changes. Furthermore, bacteria adherent to the walls of the storage jugs and embedded in this fibrous matrix also had morphologically abnormal cytoplasm. Despite these changes, viable S. marcescens organisms were recovered from the fluid during a storage period of 27 months. The concentration of chlorhexidine required to inhibit these strains of Serratia was 1,024 microgram/ml; however, the organism could survive in concentrations of up to 20,000 micrograms/ml. Additional studies are needed to define the mechanism(s) that allows such bacteria to contaminate and survive in disinfectants.

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    ABSTRACT: Microbicides (biocides) play an important role in the prevention and treatment of infections. Whilst there is currently little evidence for in-use treatment failures attributable to acquired reductions in microbicide susceptibility, the susceptibility of some bacteria can be reduced by sub-lethal level laboratory exposure to certain agents. In this investigation, a range of environmental bacterial isolates (11 genera, 18 species) were repeatedly exposed to four microbicides; cetrimide, chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and triclosan; and a cationic antimicrobial peptide (apoEdpL-W). Susceptibilities (MIC and MBC) were determined before and after ten passages (P10) in the presence of antimicrobial using a previously validated exposure system and then following a further ten passages without antimicrobial (X10) to determine the stability of any adaptations. Bacteria exhibiting over 4-fold increases in MBC were further examined for alterations in biofilm forming ability. Following microbicide exposure, ≥4-fold decreases in susceptibility (MIC or MBC) occurred for cetrimide (5/18 bacteria), apoEdpL-W (7/18), chlorhexidine (8/18), PHMB (8/18) and triclosan (11/18). Out of the 34 ≥4-fold increases in MIC, 15 were fully revertible, 13 were partially revertible and 6 were non-revertible. Of the 26 ≥4-fold increases in MBC, 7 were fully revertible, 14 were partially revertible and 5 were non-revertible. Significant decreases in biofilm formation in P10 strains occurred for apoEdpL-W (1/18 bacteria), chlorhexidine (1/18) and triclosan (2/18), whilst significant increases occurred for apoEdpL-W (1/18) triclosan (1/18) and chlorhexidine (2/18). These data suggest that the stability of induced changes in microbicide insusceptibility varies but may be stable for some combinations of bacterium and microbicide.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 07/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 􀇔􀇭􀇯􀇷􀇳􀇾􀇻􀈁􀇺􀇰􀋚􀀁􀇥􀇱􀇾􀇾􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇭􀀁􀇹􀇭􀇾􀇯􀇱􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇺􀇿􀋙􀀁􀇭􀀁􀈁􀇮􀇵􀇽􀈁􀇵􀈀􀇻􀈁􀇿􀀁􀇾􀇻􀇰􀋭􀇿􀇴􀇭􀇼􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇳􀇾􀇭􀇹􀋭􀇺􀇱􀇳􀇭􀈀􀇵􀈂􀇱􀀁􀇮􀇭􀇯􀈀􀇱􀇾􀇵􀈁􀇹􀀁􀇵􀇿􀀁􀇭􀇺􀀁􀇻􀇼􀇼􀇻􀇾􀈀􀈁􀇺􀇵􀇿􀈀􀇵􀇯􀀁􀇼􀇭􀈀􀇴􀇻􀇳􀇱􀇺􀀁􀇯􀇭􀈁􀇿􀇵􀇺􀇳􀀁􀇭􀀁􀇼􀇸􀇱􀈀􀇴􀇻􀇾􀇭􀀁􀇻􀇲􀀁 􀇺􀇻􀇿􀇻􀇯􀇻􀇹􀇵􀇭􀇸􀀁 􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀇿􀀁 􀇵􀇺􀀁 􀇴􀈁􀇹􀇭􀇺􀇿􀀁 􀇵􀇺􀇯􀇸􀈁􀇰􀇵􀇺􀇳􀀁 􀈃􀇻􀈁􀇺􀇰􀀁 􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀇿􀋘􀀁 􀇦􀇴􀇱􀈅􀀁 􀇭􀇾􀇱􀀁 􀇵􀇰􀇱􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇲􀇵􀇱􀇰􀀁 􀇵􀇺􀀁 􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇵􀇾􀀁 􀇱􀇯􀇻􀇸􀇻􀇳􀇵􀇯􀇭􀇸􀀁 􀇺􀇵􀇯􀇴􀇱􀇿􀀁 􀇮􀈅􀀁 􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇵􀇾􀀁 􀇾􀇱􀇰􀀁 􀇼􀇵􀇳􀇹􀇱􀇺􀈀􀋙􀀁 􀇼􀇾􀇻􀇰􀇵􀇳􀇵􀇻􀇿􀇵􀇺􀋘􀀁􀇛􀇺􀇲􀇻􀇾􀇹􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀀁􀇯􀇻􀇺􀇯􀇱􀇾􀇺􀇵􀇺􀇳􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇿􀇱􀀁􀇻􀇾􀇳􀇭􀇺􀇵􀇿􀇹􀇿􀀁􀇵􀇺􀀁􀇭􀇿􀇿􀇻􀇯􀇵􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀀁􀈃􀇵􀈀􀇴􀀁􀈃􀇻􀈁􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀇿􀀁􀇭􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇿􀇼􀇭􀇾􀇿􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇺􀀁􀇻􀈁􀇾􀀁􀇸􀇻􀇯􀇭􀇸􀇵􀈀􀈅􀋘􀀁􀇦􀇴􀇵􀇿􀀁􀇿􀈀􀈁􀇰􀈅􀀁􀈃􀇭􀇿􀀁 􀇰􀇱􀇿􀇵􀇳􀇺􀇱􀇰􀀁􀈀􀇻􀀁􀇰􀇱􀈀􀇱􀇾􀇹􀇵􀇺􀇱􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇼􀇾􀇱􀈂􀇭􀇸􀇱􀇺􀇯􀇱􀀁􀇻􀇲􀀁􀇥􀇱􀇾􀇾􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇭􀀁􀇹􀇭􀇾􀇯􀇱􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇺􀇿􀀁􀇵􀇺􀀁􀈃􀇻􀈁􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀇿􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇵􀇾􀀁􀇭􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇹􀇵􀇯􀇾􀇻􀇮􀇵􀇭􀇸􀀁􀇿􀈁􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇼􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇸􀇵􀈀􀈅􀀁􀇼􀇾􀇻􀇲􀇵􀇸􀇱􀋘􀀁 􀇘􀇵􀇺􀇰􀇵􀇺􀇳􀇿􀋚􀀁􀇩􀇻􀈁􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇿􀈃􀇭􀇮􀇿􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇼􀈁􀇿􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇯􀇻􀇸􀇸􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇲􀇾􀇻􀇹􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇼􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇱􀇺􀈀􀇿􀀁􀇭􀇲􀈀􀇱􀇾􀀁􀇾􀇱􀇯􀇱􀇵􀈂􀇵􀇺􀇳􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇻􀇾􀇹􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇯􀇻􀇺􀇿􀇱􀇺􀈀􀀁􀇲􀇾􀇻􀇹􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇹􀋘􀀁􀇥􀇭􀇹􀇼􀇸􀇱􀇿􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇻􀇯􀈁􀇸􀇭􀈀􀇱􀇰􀀁 􀇻􀇺􀀁􀇭􀇼􀇼􀇾􀇻􀇼􀇾􀇵􀇭􀈀􀇱􀀁􀇹􀇱􀇰􀇵􀇭􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇯􀈁􀇸􀈀􀈁􀇾􀇱􀇿􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇯􀈁􀇮􀇭􀈀􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇭􀈀􀀁􀋅􀋉􀌎􀇕􀀁􀇭􀇱􀇾􀇻􀇮􀇵􀇯􀇭􀇸􀇸􀈅􀋘􀀁􀇕􀈁􀇸􀈀􀈁􀇾􀇱􀇿􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇱􀈄􀇭􀇹􀇵􀇺􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇹􀇭􀇯􀇾􀇻􀇿􀇯􀇻􀇼􀇵􀇯􀇭􀇸􀇸􀈅􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇮􀇭􀇯􀈀􀇱􀇾􀇵􀇭􀇸􀀁􀇵􀇿􀇻􀇸􀇭􀈀􀇱􀇿􀀁 􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇳􀇾􀇭􀇹􀀁􀇿􀈀􀇭􀇵􀇺􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇹􀇵􀇯􀇾􀇻􀇿􀇯􀇻􀇼􀇵􀇯􀇭􀇸􀇸􀈅􀀁􀇱􀈄􀇭􀇹􀇵􀇺􀇱􀇰􀋘􀀁􀇢􀇭􀈀􀇴􀇻􀇳􀇱􀇺􀇿􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇰􀇱􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇲􀇵􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇮􀈅􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇵􀇾􀀁􀇾􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇼􀇵􀇳􀇹􀇱􀇺􀈀􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇻􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇾􀀁􀇮􀇵􀇻􀇯􀇴􀇱􀇹􀇵􀇯􀇭􀇸􀀁􀈀􀇱􀇿􀈀􀇿􀋘􀀁􀇦􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇝􀇵􀇾􀇮􀈅􀋭 􀇔􀇭􀈁􀇱􀇾􀀁􀇰􀇵􀇿􀇷􀀁􀇰􀇵􀇲􀇲􀈁􀇿􀇵􀇻􀇺􀀁􀇹􀇱􀈀􀇴􀇻􀇰􀀁􀈃􀇭􀇿􀀁􀈁􀇿􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇲􀇻􀇾􀀁􀇭􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇻􀈀􀇵􀇯􀀁􀇿􀈁􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇼􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇸􀇵􀈀􀈅􀀁􀈀􀇱􀇿􀈀􀇵􀇺􀇳􀋘􀀁􀇡􀈁􀈀􀀁􀇻􀇲􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀋄􀋇􀋃􀀁􀈃􀇻􀈁􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇿􀇭􀇹􀇼􀇸􀇱􀇿􀀁􀇯􀇻􀇸􀇸􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇰􀈁􀇾􀇵􀇺􀇳􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇿􀈀􀈁􀇰􀈅􀀁􀇼􀇱􀇾􀇵􀇻􀇰􀋙􀀁 􀋄􀋇􀀁􀋴􀋋􀋘􀋋􀌇􀋵􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇥􀇱􀇾􀇾􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇭􀀁􀇹􀇭􀇾􀇯􀇱􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇺􀇿􀋘􀀁􀇟􀇭􀇸􀇱􀇿􀀁􀋶􀋃􀋊􀀁􀋴􀋉􀋄􀋘􀋂􀌇􀋵􀋷􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇹􀇻􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇿􀈁􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇼􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇸􀇱􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇭􀇺􀀁􀇲􀇱􀇹􀇭􀇸􀇱􀇿􀀁􀋶􀋉􀀁􀋴􀋄􀋊􀋘􀋂􀌇􀋵􀋷􀋙􀀁􀇮􀈁􀈀􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀈃􀇭􀇿􀀁􀇺􀇻􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇸􀈁􀇱􀇺􀇯􀇱􀀁􀇻􀇲􀀁 􀇳􀇱􀇺􀇰􀇱􀇾􀀁􀇻􀇺􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇾􀇭􀈀􀇱􀇿􀀁􀇻􀇲􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀀁􀋴􀇼􀌥􀋂􀋘􀋅􀋵􀋘􀀁􀇦􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇿􀈁􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇼􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇸􀇵􀈀􀈅􀀁􀇼􀇾􀇻􀇲􀇵􀇸􀇱􀀁􀇻􀇲􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇿􀇻􀇸􀇭􀈀􀇱􀇿􀀁􀈀􀇻􀀁􀇭􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇻􀈀􀇵􀇯􀇿􀀁􀈀􀇱􀇿􀈀􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇾􀇭􀇺􀇳􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇮􀇱􀈀􀈃􀇱􀇱􀇺􀀁􀋆􀌇􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀋉􀋈􀌇􀋘􀀁􀇦􀇴􀇱􀀁 􀇹􀇻􀇿􀈀􀀁􀇿􀇱􀇺􀇿􀇵􀈀􀇵􀈂􀇱􀀁􀇭􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇻􀈀􀇵􀇯􀀁􀈃􀇭􀇿􀀁􀇸􀇱􀈂􀇻􀇲􀇸􀇻􀈄􀇭􀇯􀇵􀇺􀀁􀋶􀋃􀋋􀀁􀋴􀋉􀋈􀌇􀋵􀋷􀀁􀇲􀇻􀇸􀇸􀇻􀈃􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇮􀈅􀀁􀇳􀇱􀇺􀈀􀇭􀇹􀇵􀇯􀇵􀇺􀀁􀋶􀋃􀋉􀀁􀋴􀋈􀋊􀌇􀋵􀋷􀋘􀀁􀇓􀇸􀇸􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇿􀇻􀇸􀇭􀈀􀇱􀇿􀀁􀈃􀇱􀇾􀇱􀀁􀇭􀇮􀇿􀇻􀇸􀈁􀈀􀇱􀇸􀈅􀀁􀇾􀇱􀇿􀇵􀇿􀈀􀇭􀇺􀈀􀀁􀈀􀇻􀀁 􀇭􀇹􀇼􀇵􀇯􀇵􀇸􀇸􀇵􀇺􀋘􀀁 􀇕􀇻􀇺􀇯􀇸􀈁􀇿􀇵􀇻􀇺􀋚􀀁􀇘􀇸􀈁􀇻􀇾􀇻􀇽􀈁􀇵􀇺􀇻􀇸􀇻􀇺􀇱􀇿􀀁􀇴􀇭􀈂􀇱􀀁􀇿􀇴􀇻􀈃􀇺􀀁􀇭􀀁􀇳􀇻􀇻􀇰􀀁􀇭􀇯􀈀􀇵􀈂􀇵􀈀􀈅􀀁􀇭􀇳􀇭􀇵􀇺􀇿􀈀􀀁􀇥􀇱􀇾􀇾􀇭􀈀􀇵􀇭􀀁􀇹􀇭􀇾􀇯􀇱􀇿􀇯􀇱􀇺􀇿􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇿􀇴􀇻􀈁􀇸􀇰􀀁􀇮􀇱􀀁􀇯􀇻􀇺􀇿􀇵􀇰􀇱􀇾􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇭􀇿􀀁􀇭􀀁􀇲􀇵􀇾􀇿􀈀􀀁􀇸􀇵􀇺􀇱􀀁􀇭􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇻􀈀􀇵􀇯􀀁 􀇭􀇳􀇭􀇵􀇺􀇿􀈀􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇿􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀇿􀀁􀇵􀇺􀀁􀇻􀈁􀇾􀀁􀇸􀇻􀇯􀇭􀇸􀇵􀈀􀈅􀋘􀀁􀇦􀇻􀀁􀇿􀈀􀇭􀈅􀀁􀇭􀇴􀇱􀇭􀇰􀀁􀇵􀇺􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀀁􀇲􀇵􀇳􀇴􀈀􀀁􀇭􀇳􀇭􀇵􀇺􀇿􀈀􀀁􀈀􀇴􀇱􀇿􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀇿􀋙􀀁􀇱􀇲􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀈂􀇱􀀁􀇵􀇺􀇲􀇱􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇻􀇺􀀁􀇯􀇻􀇺􀈀􀇾􀇻􀇸􀀁􀇿􀇴􀇻􀈁􀇸􀇰􀀁􀇮􀇱􀀁􀇼􀇾􀇭􀇯􀈀􀇵􀇯􀇱􀇰􀋙􀀁 􀇭􀇺􀈀􀇵􀇮􀇵􀇻􀈀􀇵􀇯􀀁􀈁􀇿􀇭􀇳􀇱􀀁􀇿􀇴􀇻􀈁􀇸􀇰􀀁􀇮􀇱􀀁􀇻􀇼􀈀􀇵􀇹􀇵􀈆􀇱􀇰􀀁􀇭􀇺􀇰􀀁􀇱􀇹􀇼􀇵􀇾􀇵􀇯􀇭􀇸􀀁􀈀􀇾􀇱􀇭􀈀􀇹􀇱􀇺􀈀􀀁􀇾􀇱􀇰􀈁􀇯􀇱􀇰􀋘
    ELMEDNIFICO JOURNAL. 01/2014; 2(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Biofilms of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 were developed on stainless steel chips in trypti-case soy broth (TSB), 1/5 dilution of TSB, 0.1 % Bacto peptone (BP) and a minimal salts medium (MSM) supplemented with 0.04% of one of the following carbon sources: glucose, glycerol, lactose, mannose, succinic acid, sodium pyruvate or lactic acid. It was found that biofilms developed faster and a higher number of adherent cells (ca. 10 6 CFU /cm 2) were recovered when the organisms were grown in the low nutrient media. Regardless of the carbon source, biofilms developed in MSM consisted of shorter bacterial cells and thicker extracellular matrix (ECM), with glucose as the best substrate for stable biofilm formation. Fewer bacteria in initial attachment, non-hydrophobicity of bacterial cells, lack of ECM formation and easy detachment of the biofilm bacteria may contribute to poor biofilm formation in TSB. ECM is probably important for the stability of biofilms; however, at 10°C and under anaerobic conditions, ECM seems to be unnecessary.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 07/1995; 26(2):147-164. · 3.43 Impact Factor


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