Electrical conductivity of milk for detection of mastitis
ABSTRACT The potential value of electrical conductivity of milk as a screening test for subclinical mastitis was evaluated. Conductivity of foremilk and of postmilking strippings from 368 quarters of 92 cows was measured. Infection status of quarters was determined by bacteriological analysis of strict foremilk samples. Infections were classified as by primary or secondary pathogens, depending on the importance of the isolated organism as a mastitis pathogen. Somatic cells were counted on foremilk samples. Milk conductivity increased with infection. Conductivity of postmilking strippings was higher than that of foremilk in samples from quarters infected by primary pathogens. By thresholds which correctly classified at least 90% of normal quarters, accuracy of identifying primary pathogen infections by absolute conductivity was 62.8 and 96.2% with foremilk and postmilking strippings. Differential conductivity and combination of absolute and differential methods also were evaluated with the latter being the most effective. Number of quarters with elevated conductivity of postmilking strippings tended to be higher when somatic cell count was greater than 500,000/ml in both normal and infected groups. Conductivity of milk seems to hold promise as an indicator of subclinical mastitis.
- SourceAvailable from: Grant A Smolenski
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- "As such, there is considerable interest in developing onfarm tests which are simple, fast and potentially amenable to in-line monitoring as part of milking systems. Current on-farm tests include the California mastitis test (CMT) (Schalm and Noorlander, 1957) or measuring the electrical conductivity of the milk (Fernando et al., 1982). Both * Corresponding author. "
ABSTRACT: Current on-farm methods for detecting mastitis in dairy cows have limitations with their specificity and sensitivity, particularly at an early stage of infection. There is therefore a need to explore new approaches for detecting early and subclinical mastitis. This study examined the expression of a group of neutrophil-specific proteins, the cathelicidins, in milk samples from naturally occurring as well as experimentally induced mastitis infections. Immunoblot analysis indicated that cathelicidin proteins are only observed in infected quarters and demonstrate a high correlation with somatic cell count (SCC) during the onset of infection. In most of the infections examined, cathelicidin was detected prior to the observation of clinical symptoms and at SCC counts as low as 6.2 × 10(3)cells/mL. In naturally occurring mastitis the correlation between cathelicidin and infection status is not as strong, with 25% of pathogen-positive milk samples containing no detectable cathelicidin. This may reflect the varying levels of neutrophil concentration and activity at different stages or severities of infection. Our results indicate that milk cathelicidin levels increase following intramammary infection and cathelicidin-based biomarkers may assist in the detection of preclinical mastitis or determining the stage of infection.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 09/2011; 143(1-2):125-30. DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.06.034 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Today, mastitis is one of the most important problems for dairy industry worldwide. Because of its high reliability and medium-high correlation with mastitis, electrical conductivity of milk (EC) has been regarded a special importance to detect this disease. In this paper, functional mechanism of mastitis was mentioned briefly and relationships between EC and mastitis were discussed.