Localization of trehalase in vacuoles and of trehalose in the cytosol of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).
ABSTRACT Protoplasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesized and degraded trehalose when they were incubated in a medium containing traces of glucose and acetate. Such protoplasts were gently lyzed by the polybase method and a particulate and soluble fraction was prepared. Trehalose was found in the soluble fraction and the trehalase activity mostly in the particulate fraction which also contained the vacuoles besides other cell organelles. Upon purification of the vacuoles, by density gradient centrifugation, the specific activity of trehalase increased parallel to the specific content of vacuolar markers. This indicates that trehalose is located in the cytosol and trehalase in the vacuole. It is suggested that trehalose, in addition to its role as a reserve may also function as a protective agent to maintain the cytosolic structure under conditions of stress.
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ABSTRACT: Glycogen and trehalose are the two glucose stores of yeast cells. The large variations in the cell content of these two compounds in response to different environmental changes indicate that their metabolism is controlled by complex regulatory systems. In this review we present information on the regulation of the activity of the enzymes implicated in the pathways of synthesis and degradation of glycogen and trehalose as well as on the transcriptional control of the genes encoding them. cAMP and the protein kinases Snf1 and Pho85 appear as major actors in this regulation. From a metabolic point of view, glucose-6-phosphate seems the major effector in the net synthesis of glycogen and trehalose. We discuss also the implication of the recently elucidated TOR-dependent nutrient signalling pathway in the control of the yeast glucose stores and its integration in growth and cell division. The unexpected roles of glycogen and trehalose found in the control of glycolytic flux, stress responses and energy stores for the budding process, demonstrate that their presence confers survival and reproductive advantages to the cell. The findings discussed provide for the first time a teleonomic value for the presence of two different glucose stores in the yeast cell.FEMS Microbiology Reviews 02/2001; 25(1):125-45. · 10.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can synthesize trehalose and also use this disaccharide as a carbon source for growth. However, the molecular mechanism by which extracellular trehalose can be transported to the vacuole and degraded by the acid trehalase Ath1p is not clear. By using an adaptation of the assay of invertase on whole cells with NaF, we showed that more than 90% of the activity of Ath1p is extracellular, splitting of the disaccharide into glucose. We also found that Agt1p-mediated trehalose transport and the hydrolysis of the disaccharide by the cytosolic neutral trehalase Nth1p are coupled and represent a second, independent pathway, although there are several constraints on this alternative route. First, the AGT1/MAL11 gene is controlled by the MAL system, and Agt1p was active in neither non-maltose-fermenting nor maltose-inducible strains. Second, Agt1p rapidly lost activity during growth on trehalose, by a mechanism similar to the sugar-induced inactivation of the maltose permease. Finally, both pathways are highly pH sensitive and effective growth on trehalose occurred only when the medium was buffered at around pH 5.0. The catabolism of trehalose was purely oxidative, and since levels of Ath1p limit the glucose flux in the cells, batch cultures on trehalose may provide a useful alternative to glucose-limited chemostat cultures for investigation of metabolic responses in yeast.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/2004; 70(5):2771-8. · 3.83 Impact Factor
Article: Disruption of the yeast ATH1 gene confers better survival after dehydration, freezing, and ethanol shock: potential commercial applications.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The accumulation of trehalose is a critical determinant of stress resistance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have constructed a yeast strain in which the activity of the trehalose-hydrolyzing enzyme, acid trehalase (ATH), has been abolished. Loss of ATH activity was accomplished by disrupting the ATH1 gene, which is essential for ATH activity. The delta ath1 strain accumulated greater levels of cellular trehalose and grew to a higher cell density than the isogenic wild-type strain. In addition, the elevated levels of trehalose in the delta ath1 strain correlated with increased tolerance to dehydration, freezing, and toxic levels of ethanol. The improved resistance to stress conditions exhibited by the delta ath1 strain may make this strain useful in commercial applications, including baking and brewing.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/1996; 62(5):1563-9. · 3.83 Impact Factor