Drop-off rhythms of engorged Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acarina: Ixodidae).
ABSTRACT Diurnal drop-off rhythms were exhibited by all three stages of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus engorging on cattle in stalls under natural conditions of light and temperature. Most engorged larvae dropped from the host between 1000 and 1400 hours, most nymphs between 1200 and 1800 hours, and most adults between 0600 and 0800 hours. Under controlled conditions of light and temperature the drop-off rhythms of larvae and nymphs engorging on rabbits were synchronized by oscillators set in the tick in the pre- and postattachment periods. The possibility of a host-induced rhythm was inferred from the data. Drop-off patterns may be used to enhance tick control methods.
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ABSTRACT: Tick distribution depends on the drop-off rhythm of the previous stage and on the suitability for tick survival of the environment where they are disseminated. Studies were implemented in Burkina Faso to assess detachment pattern of engorged Amblyomma variegatum nymphs. Experiments were carried out with naturally infested cattle kept in a paddock or monitored when grazing community pasture. In the pasture, 80% of the nymphs detached between 14.00 h and 17.00 h while less than 25% did so in the paddock. Further investigation was implemented to assess whether the density of adult ticks might be modified by herd management. During the early dry season, zebus grazed in 4 plots fenced in natural savannahs and fallows. Two of the plots were used in the morning and the two others in the afternoon. Six months later, zebus were put in these plots, in turn, on 9 occasions. The number of A. variegatum adults picked up by the cattle in each plot was highly variable: they captured more ticks in the plots installed on good lush savannah and 3-fold more ticks in those where the herd had grazed in the afternoon during the previous dry season. An integrated tick control strategy taking these results into account is proposed.Parasitology 06/2010; 137(7):1129-37. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pattern of drop-off of Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch was studied by infesting rabbits and rats with larvae and nymphs, and calves with adult ticks maintained at a daily photoperiodic regime of 12 h light 12 h dark. Additional information was obtained by infesting rabbits with nymphs in or out of phase with the photoperiodic regime experienced by the host.The great majority of ticks detached during the photophase: only 9.7% of larvae and 11.3% of nymphs fed on rats, 12.0% of larvae and 15.8% of nymphs fed on rabbits, respectively, and 10.0% of female ticks detached during the scotophase. The rhythm was not substantially altered by feeding nymphs in or out of phase with the photoperiodic regime of the host. The drop-off rhythm seemed to be coupled with endogenous rhythms of the host.Enperimental and Applied Acarology 06/1993; 17(7):561-566. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The abundance of infected Ixodid ticks is an important component of human risk of Lyme disease, and various empirical studies have shown that this is associated, at least in part, to landscape fragmentation. In this study, we aimed at exploring how varying woodland fragmentation patterns affect the risk of Lyme disease, through infected tick abundance. A cellular automata model was developed, incorporating a heterogeneous landscape with three interactive components: an age-structured tick population, a classical disease transmission function, and hosts. A set of simplifying assumptions were adopted with respect to the study objective and field data limitations. In the model, the landscape influences both tick survival and host movement. The validation of the model was performed with an empirical study. Scenarios of various landscape configurations (focusing on woodland fragmentation) were simulated and compared. Lyme disease risk indices (density and infection prevalence of nymphs) differed considerably between scenarios: (i) the risk could be higher in highly fragmented woodlands, which is supported by a number of recently published empirical studies, and (ii) grassland could reduce the risk in adjacent woodland, which suggests landscape fragmentation studies of zoonotic diseases should not focus on the patch-level woodland patterns only, but also on landscape-level adjacent land cover patterns. Further analysis of the simulation results indicated strong correlations between Lyme disease risk indices and the density, shape and aggregation level of woodland patches. These findings highlight the strong effect of the spatial patterns of local host population and movement on the spatial dynamics of Lyme disease risks, which can be shaped by woodland fragmentation. In conclusion, using a cellular automata approach is beneficial for modelling complex zoonotic transmission systems as it can be combined with either real world landscapes for exploring direct spatial effects or artificial representations for outlining possible empirical investigations.PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39612. · 3.53 Impact Factor