Resting heart rate and pressure-rate product of children in a total biracial community: the Bogalusa Heart Study.
ABSTRACT Resting heart rates were ascertained during the 1978-1979 school year in 3590 children aged 5-17 years in the biracial geographic population of Bogalusa, Louisiana. These rates were found to be relatively independent of the method of measurement, whether supine by physician's stethoscope or dressed sitting radial pulse taken by a nurse, and in either case adhering to a strict measurement protocol. Apart from the known influences of age and sex, the authors found a small but consistent racial influence, with whites having 3-4 beats/min higher rates than blacks. Controlling for age, the authors found heart rate to be positively correlated with blood pressure in whites and with subcapsular skinfold thickness in boys. No consistent relation between heart rate and amount of cigarettes smoked was observed. Boys in the upper five percentiles of blood pressure-heart rate ("double") product values were found to have about twice the subscapular skinfold thickness compared to the lower five percentiles. Likewise, boys in the upper five percentiles of subscapular skinfold thickness had significantly increased double products. Since the double product is an index of cardiac oxygen consumption, this finding could point to a possible etiologic link between obesity and chronic cardiac stress in males beyond the mediation of lipoproteins, cholesterol, and diabetes mellitus in contributing to atherosclerotic heart disease, but this issue needs further study. Ascertainment of resting heart rate provides an additional parameter in the study of cardiovascular risk factor variables, in youth as in adulthood, to supplement the natural history of the atherosclerosis-hypertension syndrome with its sequelae.
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ABSTRACT: Low resting heart rate is a strong and consistent predictor of conduct disorder and chronic aggression. Explanations such as fearlessness and low arousal-induced stimulus-seeking have been offered, assuming a causal association between the phenomena, but the origin of low heart rate and its significance for understanding aggression and violence remain obscure. Retinoids (vitamin A and its congeners) play important roles in embryogenesis and neural development. Several lines of evidence also suggest a causal role of retinoids in aggression as well as cognitive and mood disorders. The hypothesis is proposed that retinoid overexpression in utero induces, via a noradrenergic-to-cholinergic switch, alterations in cardiac functioning and hemodynamics resulting in low resting heart rate, brain structural and functional changes, minor physical anomalies, and persistent aggression. Retinoid toxicity occurring early in pregnancy could represent a final common pathway by which various prenatal challenges result in conduct disorder and chronic aggression (e.g., maternal cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, exposure to environmental chemicals, stress, trauma or infection). Implications of the model for understanding related aspects of chronic aggression are discussed, as well as strategies for prevention and treatment.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 12/2008; 33(2):205-13. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2008.10.019 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Essential hypertension is perhaps the number-one health problem of Black Americans. Research has indicated that stress-induced cardiovascular hyperreactivity may be a significant contributor to essential hypertension. The high prevalence of hypertension among Blacks suggests that this group, in comparison with Whites, may be particularly susceptible to cardiovascular hyperreactivity. The first portion of this article reviews research to date that has examined racial differences in resting and stressor-induced cardiovascular activity. The second half of this article overviews some critical methodological and conceptual issues involved in the study of racial differences in reactivity. These issues include the effects of Black-White differences in plasma renin levels and sodium excretion, the effects of experimenter race, and differences in perceptions of the laboratory environment. Additionally, the issue of racial group classification and the implications this has for interpreting Black-White differences in reactivity is discussed. Two perspectives on racial group classification, the genetic and the sociocultural, are addressed in some detail, and the relevance of each to research on racial differences in stress reactivity is presented.Psychological Bulletin 02/1989; 105(1):89-105. DOI:10.1037//0033-2909.105.1.89 · 14.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Few researchers have investigated the resting pulse rate of children and young adults as a risk factor or indicator for subsequent cardiovascular morbidity in a representative sample of the total population. Data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for persons ages 6-24 years revealed mean resting pulse rates that declined with age until ages 12-16, were higher in females than males, and in whites than blacks. At ages 12-17 and 18-24, blood pressure and body temperature showed consistent, independent, positive associations with pulse rate in whites. However, relatively little of the overall variation in pulse rate was explained by measured variables in multivariate regression analyses. Mother-child, age-specific correlation coefficients for pulse and blood pressure were generally positive. Further research is needed on the associations of resting pulse rate with sex, race, and blood pressure and with subsequent cardiovascular morbidity.Public Health Reports 106(4):400-10. · 1.64 Impact Factor