Obstructive apneas during sleep in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.
ABSTRACT The possible role of high nasal airway resistance in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea has been examined in 7 patients with seasonal (ragweed) allergic rhinitis, a naturally occurring model of reversible nasal obstruction. Measurements of nasal resistance and overnight polysomnographic studies were performed during the ragweed season when the patients complained of nasal obstruction; and 6 to 8 wk later when the symptoms had subsided (control study). During the symptomatic phase, mean (+/- SE) nasal resistance was 4.9 +/- 0.8 cm H2O/L/s, and the patients experienced 1.7 +/- 0.3 obstructive apneas per hour of sleep. In contrast, at the time of the control study, nasal resistance had decreased to 2.5 +/- 0.3 cm H2O/L/s (p less than 0.01); and the rate of obstructive apneas had decreased to 0.7 +/- 0.4 per hour of sleep (p less than 0.005). The duration of these apneas had also decreased from 15.5 +/- 0.8 s to 6.1 +/- 2.9 s (p less than 0.01). Apneas were rarely associated with significant O2 desaturation and were fewer in number than typically seen in a clinically significant sleep apnea syndrome. In male patients there was a direct relationship (r = 0.9) between the change in nasal resistance from symptomatic to control studies and the corresponding change in frequency of obstructive sleep apneas. Coincident with these respiratory changes at the time of the control study was an increase in the amount of slow-wave sleep (p = 0.05) and a small reduction in the frequency of arousals during sleep (p = NS). We conclude that in patients with allergic rhinitis, obstructive sleep apneas are longer and more frequent during a period of symptomatic nasal obstruction than when symptoms are absent. The results support the concept that a high nasal resistance may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apneas in general.
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ABSTRACT: As many as 80% of patients with asthma suffer from allergic rhinitis (AR), and rhinitis symptoms are associated with sleep complaints The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome risk in patients with asthma and to explore the association between comorbid rhinitis and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome risk.
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ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have reported an association between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the precise nature of this relationship remains to be clarified. This paper aimed to summarize data and theories on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as well as to discuss the benefits of surgical and medical nasal treatments. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain the role of nasal pathology in OSAS. These include the Starling resistor model, the unstable oral airway, the nasal ventilatory reflex, and the role of nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological treatment presents some beneficial effects on the frequency of respiratory events and sleep architecture. Nonetheless, objective data assessing snoring and daytime sleepiness are still necessary. Nasal surgery can improve the quality of life and snoring in a select group of patients with mild OSAS and septal deviation but is not an effective treatment for OSA as such. Despite the conflicting results in the literature, it is important that patients who are not perfectly adapted to CPAP are evaluated in detail, in order to identify whether there are obstructive factors that could be surgically corrected.International Journal of Otolaryngology 11/2014; 2014:717419. DOI:10.1155/2014/717419
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ABSTRACT: Allergic rhinitis and associated symptomatic nasal obstruction negatively affect sleep through a variety of mechanisms and may contribute to persistent symptoms and poor adherence with medical device therapy for sleep apnea. A history of sinonasal symptoms, particularly those that occur at night or in the supine position, is the cornerstone of the medical evaluation. Further research into the relationship between allergic rhinitis and sleep disturbance would benefit from improved anatomic and pathophysiologic phenotyping as well as more advanced outcome measures such as spectral electroencephalogram analysis or other polysomnography variables beyond the apnea-hypopnea index.Clinics in Chest Medicine 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ccm.2014.06.013 · 2.17 Impact Factor