Apneic seizures in the newborn.

ABSTRACT Electroclinical features of convulsive apnea and its relation to the behavioral state were described on the basis of polygraphic recordings from 21 newborns with various underlying disorders, including perinatal anoxia, purulent meningitis, and intracranial bleeding. The most frequent ictal discharges were rhythmic alpha waves, but other types of discharges, such as repeated sharp waves, rhythmic theta waves, delta waves, and repeated paroxysmal wave complexes, were also frequently seen. The area where the ictal discharges initially occurred or were most prominent was the temporal area, suggesting the limbic origin of apneic seizures. In more than half of the cases, the sleep cycle was abolished. In those cases where the sleep cycle was preserved, the seizures occurred most frequently in active sleep, but never in quiet sleep.

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    ABSTRACT: The clinical semiology of 61 neonatal seizures with EEG correlates, in 24 babies was analysed. Most seizures (89%) had multiple features during the EEG discharge. The seizures were classified using the prominent clinical feature at onset, and all features seen during the seizure, using an extended classification scheme. Orolingual features occurred most frequently at onset (30%), whereas ocular phenomena occurred most often during the seizure (70%). Orolingual, ocular and autonomic features were seen at onset in 55% of the seizures. Seizure onsets with clonic, tonic and hypomotor features were seen in 20%, 8% and 18% respectively. Clinico-electrical correlations were as follows. The EEG discharge involved both hemispheres in 54% of all seizures, in clonic seizures this was 93%. Focal clonic seizures were associated with EEG seizure onset from the contralateral hemisphere. Majority of the clonic and hypomotor seizures had a left hemisphere ictal EEG onset. Orolingual seizures frequently started from the right hemisphere, whereas ocular and autonomic seizures arose from either hemisphere. There was no significant difference in mortality, morbidity, abnormal neuroimaging and EEG background abnormalities in babies with or without clonic seizures. This study provides insights into neuronal networks that underpin electroclinical seizures, by analysing and classifying the obvious initial clinical features and those during the seizure.
    European journal of paediatric neurology: EJPN: official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society 12/2011; 16(2):118-25. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although several cases of apneic seizures have been reported in neonates, epileptic seizures presenting as apnea only in adults are very rare. We present a case report of a 19-year-old man with viral encephalitis and frequent episodes of apneic seizures. Prolonged electroencephalograms (EEGs), respiratory monitorings, and imaging including ictal-interictal subtraction single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. Ictal EEGs recorded during apneic episodes showed repetitive sharp waves or rhythmic theta activity arising from the left or right independent bitemporal region. Ictal SPECT was performed during one episode of apnea that showed ictal EEG discharges arising from the left posterior temporal area. Ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT coregistered with MRI revealed that the seizures originated from the left, posterior, midlateral temporal cortex. Previous studies with ictal EEG or brain stimulation suggest that apneic seizures might be mediated through the limbic and associated cortical systems. Our study reports on a very rare case of partial seizures with apnea only in an adult patient and is supported by ictal EEG and ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT coregistered with MRI.
    Epilepsia 12/1999; 40(12):1828-31. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) has been increasingly used and proved useful in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for the management of neonatal seizures. It does not replace, but is supplementary to standard EEG. This article reviews some of findings obtained with standard EEGs, and tries to interpret them with recent findings in the field of basic science. Seizures mainly occur in active-REM sleep in neonates. This is in sharp contrast to those in older children and adults, in whom epileptic seizures occur mainly in NREM sleep. This may be explained by neurotransmitter effects on sleep mechanisms of the neonatal brain that are different from those of older individuals. When all clinical seizures have no electrical correlates, they are non-epileptic, but when the correlation between clinical seizures and frequent electrical discharges are inconsistent, they should rather be considered epileptic, reflecting progression of status epilepticus causing electro-clinical dissociation. Electro-clinical dissociation is not a characteristic of neonatal seizures per se, but a feature of prolonged status epilepticus in adults as well as children. It occurs when prolonged status epilepticus itself causes a progressively severe encephalopathy, or when status occurs in the presence of a severe underlying encephalopathy. In neonates without pre-existing brain damage, frequent seizures per se may cause mild depression characterized by the loss of high voltage slow patterns, an important constituent of slow wave sleep reflecting cortico-cortical connectivity. Mild depression only in the acute stage is not associated with neurological sequelae, but previously damaged brain may be more vulnerable than normal brain.
    Brain & development 05/2014; · 1.74 Impact Factor