Mood-induction procedures (MIPs) are increasingly being used as laboratory analogues of clinical depression. Four methods of mood induction are described: reading depressing self-referent statements: remembering past unpleasant events; listening to a taped depressing story: and failure on a task. The effects of these MIPs on affect, behaviour and related variables and parallels between these effects and clinical deficits are reviewed. The implications of MIP research for clinical depression are discussed in the light of self-awareness theory, mood effects on memory, and the inter-relationship between cognitive and somatic variables in depression.
"Emotional ABMs are not only powerful methods to induce emotional states (Schaefer & Philippot, 2005), they also provide a particularly ecologically valid method of emotion elicitation, as retrieval of past memories is a frequent cause of emotional states in everyday life (e.g. Goodwin & Williams, 1982; Rimé, Noël, & Philippot, 1991). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present article reports two experiments examining the impact of recollecting emotionally valenced autobiographical memories on subsequent working memory (WM) task performance. Experiment 1 found that negatively valenced recollection significantly disrupted performance on a supra-span spatial WM task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings to a verbal WM task (digit recall), and found that both negative and positive autobiographical recollections had a detrimental effect on verbal WM. In addition, we observed that these disruptive effects were more apparent on early trials, immediately following autobiographical recollection. Overall, these findings show that both positive and negative affect can disrupt WM when the mood-eliciting context is based on autobiographical memories. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emotional disruption of WM can take place across different modalities of WM (verbal and visuo-spatial).
"MCI has successfully induced affect to study memory (e.g., Eich et al., 1994) and the psychological construction of emotion (Lindquist and Barrett, 2008). In another variation, participants recall and relive memories of affectively significant past events to generate a change in their affective state (Goodwin and Williams, 1982). Recall-based affect induction has successfully induced affect to study its impact on visual attention (Jefferies et al., 2008), social judgment (Bodenhausen et al., 1994), and persuasion (Brinol et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Affect is a fundamental aspect of the human mind. An increasing number of experiments attempt to examine the influence of affect on other psychological phenomena. To accomplish this research, it is necessary to experimentally modify participants' affective states. In the present experiment, we compared the efficacy of four commonly used affect induction procedures. Participants (38 healthy undergraduate students: 18 males) were randomly assigned to either a pleasant or an unpleasant affect induction group, and then underwent four different affect induction procedures: (1) recall of an affectively salient event accompanied by affectively congruent music, (2) script-driven guided imagery, (3) viewing images while listening to affectively congruent music, and (4) posing affective facial actions, body postures, and vocal expressions. All four affect induction methods were successful in inducing both pleasant and unpleasant affective states. The viewing image with music and recall with music procedures were most effective in enhancing positive affect, whereas the viewing image with music procedure was most effective in enhancing negative affect. Implications for the scientific study of affect are discussed.
Frontiers in Psychology 07/2014; 5:689. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00689 · 2.80 Impact Factor
"A feedback was provided about the performance in each trial, and the valence of the feedback was determined by a computer program that displayed negative feedback 18 out of 20 trials. Thus, this task constituted a frustrating situation, and many studies showed that the frustrating task with negative feedbacks was effective in inducing negative, depressive emotional state –. For instance, Goodwin and Williams reported in an early study that experimental manipulations of success and failure induced depressive and negative affect . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies from European-American cultures consistently reported that expressive suppression was associated with worse emotional consequence (e.g. depression) in comparison with acceptance. However, this conclusion may not apply to Chinese, as suppressing emotional displays to maintain relational harmony is culturally valued in East Asian countries. Thus, the present study examined the effects of suppression and acceptance on the depressive mood induced by a frustrating task in a Chinese sample.
Sixty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of three instructions: suppression, acceptance or no-regulation during a frustrating arithmetic task. The experience of depressive emotion and skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded during pre-frustration baseline, frustration induction and post-frustration recovery phases, respectively.
Compared with the control and acceptance instructions, suppression instruction was associated with decreased depressive experiences and smaller SCR activity during frustration. There were no significant differences between acceptance and control groups in both subjective depression and SCR activity during frustration. Moreover, the suppression group showed a better emotional recovery after the frustrating task, in comparison with the acceptance and control groups. Correlation analyses verified that SCR reactivity was a reliable index of experienced depression during the frustration.
Expressive suppression is effective in reducing depressive experiences and depression-related physiological activity (SCR) when Chinese people are involved. By contrast, the acceptance of depressive emotion in Chinese people does not produce a similar regulation effect. These findings suggest that cultural context should be considered in understanding the emotional consequences of suppression and acceptance strategies.
PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97420. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097420 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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