Habituation during exposure treatment: distraction vs attention-focusing.
ABSTRACT To investigate the effects of distraction and attention-focusing during in-vivo exposure to feared stimuli, the responses of 16 obsessive-compulsives with washing rituals were studied. A cross-over design was employed in which 6 of the subjects underwent exposure with attention focusing on the first day followed by exposure with distraction on the second day. The remaining subjects received the reverse order. Habituation of both heart rate and subjective anxiety was observed under both conditions, the rate of habituation tending to remain constant throughout the 90-min exposure. Greater between-session habituation and greater synchrony between the psychophysiological and the subjective measures of anxiety was observed when attention-focusing preceded distraction. Since habituation and synchrony have previously been found to be positively related to treatment outcome, the present results suggest that treatment by exposure to feared stimuli may be more effective if attention-focusing is promoted.
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ABSTRACT: Over the last 30years, researchers have disagreed over the consequences of diverting attention from threat for exposure efficacy, which is an important theoretical and clinical debate. Therefore, the present meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of attentionally focused exposure against distracted and attentionally uninstructed exposure regarding distress, behavioral, and physiological outcomes. We included 15 randomized studies with specific phobia, totaling 444 participants and targeting outcomes at post-exposure and follow-up. Results indicated no difference between the efficacy of distracted exposure as opposed to focused or uninstructed exposure for distress and physiology. For behavior, at post-exposure, results were marginally significant in favor of distracted as opposed to focused exposure, while at follow-up results significantly favored distraction. However, concerning behavior, uninstructed exposure was superior to distraction. Moderation analyses revealed that, regarding distress reduction and approach behavior, distracted exposure significantly outperformed focused exposure when the distracter was interactive (g=1.010/g=1.128) and exposure was spread over the course of multiple sessions (g=1.527/g=1.606). No moderation analysis was significant for physiological measures. These findings suggest that distraction during exposure could be less counterproductive than previously considered and even beneficial under certain circumstances. Theoretical implications and future directions for research are discussed.Clinical psychology review 10/2013; 33(8):1172-1183. · 7.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A wide array of ablation technologies, in addition to the progressive sophistication of imaging technologies and percutaneous, laparoscopic, and open surgical techniques, have allowed us to expand treatment options for patients with liver tumors. In this article, technical considerations of chemical and thermal ablations and their application in hepatic oncology are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America 11/2014; · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Four recent, independent, rigorously controlled studies of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) have reported that 84 to 100% of single-trauma victims no longer maintain the posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis after the equivalent of three 90-minute sessions. The rapidity of EMDR treatment effects makes many ancillary research opportunities available. Specifically, the increased number of cases resolved in a relatively short period of time allows investigation of neurophysiological phenomena, patterns of cognitive and emotional processing, component analyses of a large range of procedural factors, and evaluation of the efficacy of application to diverse clinical populations. Unfortunately, some research has been conducted that has been severely hampered by insufficient treatment fidelity and lack of clinical validity. Consequently, this article will attempt to describe the procedures and protocols that are believed to contribute to EMDR’s clinical effects and are, therefore, suggested for the EMDR treatment and research of the anxiety disorders. This is particularly relevant given the misconceptions that have abounded due to the unfortunate naming of the procedure after the eye movements, which have proved to be only one of many useful types of stimulation, and only one of many components of this complex, integrated treatment.Journal of Anxiety Disorders 01/1999; 13(1). · 2.96 Impact Factor