1,4-Naphthoquinone and other nutrient requirements of Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 09/1982; 44(2):346-50.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Three strains of Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens isolated from the rumen of cattle or sheep under diverse conditions grew well in a minimal medium containing glucose, minerals, cysteine, methionine, leucine, serine, ammonia, 1,4-naphthoquinone, p-aminobenzoic acid, and bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer, pH 6.7. When menadione or vitamin K5 was substituted for 1,4-naphthoquinone, the growth rate was somewhat depressed. Growth was poor with vitamin K1 and ammonia, further addition of the amino acids aspartic acid, arginine, histidine, and tryptophan was necessary for good growth of type strain 24, but the other two strains grew well only in media containing ammonia. Strains C18 and 22B produced urease and grew well when ammonia replaced urea. When urea replaced ammonia, strain 24 grew poorly and urease activity could not be detected. Strain 24 required no B-vitamins, but the other two strains were stimulated by p-aminobenzoic acid. The methionine requirement was not placed by vitamin B12, betaine, or homocysteine. Cysteine was replaced by sulfide in strain 24 but less well in the other two strains. Very poor growth was obtained when sulfate replaced cysteine. The half-saturation constant for ammonia during growth of S. dextrinosolvens is more than 500 microM, a much higher value than that of many rumen bacteria.

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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate whether the host genetic background impact the ruminal microbial communities of the progeny of sires from three different breeds under different diets. Eighty five bacterial and twenty eight methanogen phylotypes from 49 individuals of diverging sire breed (Angus, ANG; Charolais, CHA; and Hybrid, HYB), fed high energy density (HE) and low energy density (LE) diets were determined and correlated with breed, rumen fermentation and phenotypic variables, using multivariate statistical approaches. When bacterial phylotypes were compared between diets, ANG offspring showed the lowest number of diet-associated phylotypes, whereas CHA and HYB progenies had seventeen and twenty-three diet-associated phylotypes, respectively. For the methanogen phylotypes, there were no sire breed-associated phylotypes; however, seven phylotypes were significantly different among breeds on either diet (P<0.05). Sire breed did not influence the metabolic variables measured when high energy diet was fed. A correlation matrix of all pairwise comparisons among frequencies of bacterial and methanogen phylotypes uncovered their relationships with sire breed. A cluster containing methanogen phylotypes M16 (Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii) and M20 (Methanobrevibacter smithii), and bacterial phylotype B62 (Robinsoniella sp.) in Angus offspring fed low energy diet reflected the metabolic interactions among microbial consortia. The clustering of the phylotype frequencies from the three breeds indicated that phylotypes detected in CHA and HYB progenies are more similar among them, compared to ANG animals. Our results revealed that the frequency of particular microbial phylotypes in the progeny of cattle may be influenced by the sire breed when different diets are fed and ultimately further impact host metabolic functions, such as feed efficiency.
    PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e58461. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens C18 was found to possess glutamine synthetase (GS), urease, glutamate dehydrogenase, and several other nitrogen assimilation enzymes. When grown in continuous culture under ammonia limitation, both GS and urease activities were high and glutamate dehydrogenase activity was low, but the opposite activity pattern was observed for growth in the presence of ample ammonia. The addition of high-level (15 mM) ammonium chloride to ammonia-limited cultures resulted in a rapid loss of GS activity as measured by either the gamma-glutamyl transferase or forward assay method with cells or extracts. No similar activity losses occurred for urease, glutamate dehydrogenase, or pyruvate kinase. The GS activity loss was not prevented by the addition of chloramphenicol and rifampin. The GS activity could be recovered by washing or incubating cells in buffer or by the addition of snake venom phosphodiesterase to cell extracts. Manganese inhibited the GS activity (forward assay) of untreated cells but stimulated the GS activity in ammonia-treated cells. Alanine, glycine, and possibly serine were inhibitory to GS activity. Optimal pH values for GS activity were 7.3 and 7.4 for the forward and gamma-glutamyl transferase assays, respectively. The glutamate dehydrogenase activity was NADPH linked and optimal in the presence of KCl. The data are consistent with an adenylylation-deadenylylation control mechanism for GS activity in S. dextrinosolvens, and the GS pathway is a major route for ammonia assimilation under low environmental ammonia levels. The rapid regulation of the ATP-requiring GS activity may be of ecological importance to this strictly anaerobic ruminal bacterium.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 11/1985; 50(4):1014-20. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria that can degrade juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) were isolated from soil beneath black walnut trees. Autecological studies with one of these bacteria (Pseudomonas J1), demonstrated that it could grow rapidly using juglone as its sole source of carbon and energy. Using nonlinear regression analysis and the Monod equation, it was determined that this bacterium had a high affinity for juglone (K s = 0.95 μg/ml).Pseudomonas J1 can also utilize other aromatic compounds from plants as its sole source of carbon and energy. Compounds such as chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (Lawson) were rapidly degraded byPseudomonas J1. The rapid degradation of juglone and other suspected allelochemicals by soil bacteria make it unlikely that these compounds are important mediators of plant-plant interactions under natural conditions.
    Journal of Chemical Ecology 07/1988; 14(7):1561-71. · 2.24 Impact Factor


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