1,4-Naphthoquinone and other nutrient requirements of Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens.

Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 09/1982; 44(2):346-50.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Three strains of Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens isolated from the rumen of cattle or sheep under diverse conditions grew well in a minimal medium containing glucose, minerals, cysteine, methionine, leucine, serine, ammonia, 1,4-naphthoquinone, p-aminobenzoic acid, and bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer, pH 6.7. When menadione or vitamin K5 was substituted for 1,4-naphthoquinone, the growth rate was somewhat depressed. Growth was poor with vitamin K1 and ammonia, further addition of the amino acids aspartic acid, arginine, histidine, and tryptophan was necessary for good growth of type strain 24, but the other two strains grew well only in media containing ammonia. Strains C18 and 22B produced urease and grew well when ammonia replaced urea. When urea replaced ammonia, strain 24 grew poorly and urease activity could not be detected. Strain 24 required no B-vitamins, but the other two strains were stimulated by p-aminobenzoic acid. The methionine requirement was not placed by vitamin B12, betaine, or homocysteine. Cysteine was replaced by sulfide in strain 24 but less well in the other two strains. Very poor growth was obtained when sulfate replaced cysteine. The half-saturation constant for ammonia during growth of S. dextrinosolvens is more than 500 microM, a much higher value than that of many rumen bacteria.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens C18 was found to possess glutamine synthetase (GS), urease, glutamate dehydrogenase, and several other nitrogen assimilation enzymes. When grown in continuous culture under ammonia limitation, both GS and urease activities were high and glutamate dehydrogenase activity was low, but the opposite activity pattern was observed for growth in the presence of ample ammonia. The addition of high-level (15 mM) ammonium chloride to ammonia-limited cultures resulted in a rapid loss of GS activity as measured by either the gamma-glutamyl transferase or forward assay method with cells or extracts. No similar activity losses occurred for urease, glutamate dehydrogenase, or pyruvate kinase. The GS activity loss was not prevented by the addition of chloramphenicol and rifampin. The GS activity could be recovered by washing or incubating cells in buffer or by the addition of snake venom phosphodiesterase to cell extracts. Manganese inhibited the GS activity (forward assay) of untreated cells but stimulated the GS activity in ammonia-treated cells. Alanine, glycine, and possibly serine were inhibitory to GS activity. Optimal pH values for GS activity were 7.3 and 7.4 for the forward and gamma-glutamyl transferase assays, respectively. The glutamate dehydrogenase activity was NADPH linked and optimal in the presence of KCl. The data are consistent with an adenylylation-deadenylylation control mechanism for GS activity in S. dextrinosolvens, and the GS pathway is a major route for ammonia assimilation under low environmental ammonia levels. The rapid regulation of the ATP-requiring GS activity may be of ecological importance to this strictly anaerobic ruminal bacterium.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 11/1985; 50(4):1014-20. · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The proteolytic activity of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, a ubiquitously distributed bacterial species in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and other mammals, was characterized. The relative proteolytic activity (micrograms of azocasein degraded per hour per milligram of protein) varied greatly with the strain: 0 to 1 for strains D1, D16f, E21C, and X6C61; 7 to 15 for strains IL631, NOR37, S2, LM8/1B, and X10C34; and 90 to 590 for strains 12, 49 H17C, CF4c, CF3, CF1B, and R28. The activity levels of the last group of strains were equal to or greater than those found with Bacteroides amylophilus or Bacteroides ruminicola. With the exception of strain R28 activity, 90% or more of the proteolytic activity was associated with the culture fluid and not the cells. Strain 49 produced proteolytic activity constitutively, but the level of activity (units per milligram of protein) was modulated by growth parameters. With various carbohydrates added to the growth medium, the proteolytic activities of strain 49 were positively correlated with the growth rate. However, when the growth rate varied with the use of different nitrogen sources, a similar correlation was not found. The highest activity level was observed with Casamino Acids (1 g/liter), but this level was reduced by ca. 70% with Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) or casein (1 g/liter) and by 85% with ammonium chloride (10 mM) as the sole nitrogen source. The addition of ammonium chloride (1 to 10 mM) to media with low levels of Casamino Acids or Trypticase resulted in lower proteolytic activities but not as low as seen when the complex nitrogen sources were increased to high levels (20 g/liter).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 08/1986; 52(1):51-8. · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bacteria that can degrade juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) were isolated from soil beneath black walnut trees. Autecological studies with one of these bacteria (Pseudomonas J1), demonstrated that it could grow rapidly using juglone as its sole source of carbon and energy. Using nonlinear regression analysis and the Monod equation, it was determined that this bacterium had a high affinity for juglone (K s = 0.95 μg/ml).Pseudomonas J1 can also utilize other aromatic compounds from plants as its sole source of carbon and energy. Compounds such as chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (Lawson) were rapidly degraded byPseudomonas J1. The rapid degradation of juglone and other suspected allelochemicals by soil bacteria make it unlikely that these compounds are important mediators of plant-plant interactions under natural conditions.
    Journal of Chemical Ecology 07/1988; 14(7):1561-71. DOI:10.1007/BF01012522 · 2.24 Impact Factor


Available from