Role of the bilayer in the shape of the isolated erythrocyte membrane.
ABSTRACT The determinants of cell shape were explored in a study of the crenation (spiculation) of the isolated erythrocyte membrane. Standard ghosts prepared in 5 mM NaPi (pH 8) were plump, dimpled disks even when prepared from echinocytic (spiculated) red cells. These ghosts became crenated in the presence of isotonic saline, millimolar levels of divalent cations, 1 mM 2,4-dinitrophenol or 0.1 mM lysolecithin. Crenation was suppressed in ghosts generated under conditions of minimal osmotic stress, in ghosts from red cells partially depleted of cholesterol, and, paradoxically, in ghosts from red cells crenated by lysolecithin. The susceptibility of ghosts to crenation was lost with time; this process was potentiated by elevated temperature, low ionic strength, and traces of detergents or chlorpromazine. In that ghost shape was influenced by a variety of amphipaths, our results favor the premise that the bilayer and not the subjacent protein reticulum drives ghost crenation. The data also suggest that vigorous osmotic hemolysis induces a redistribution of lipids between the two leaflets of the bilayer which affects membrane contour through a bilayer couple mechanism. Subsequent relaxation of that metastable distribution could account for the observed loss of crenatability.
- Seminars in Hematology 02/1979; 16(1):21-51. · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have previously proposed the hypothesis that asymmetric membranes behave like bilayer couples: the two layers of the bilayer membrane can respond differently to a particular perturbation. Such a perturbation, for example, can result in the expansion of one layer relative to the other, thereby producing a curvature of that membrane. In experiments with erythrocytes and lymphocytes, we now demonstrate that different membrane perturbations which have opposite effects on membrane curvature can compensate and neutralize one another, as expected from the bilayer couple hypothesis. This provides a rational basis, for example, for understanding the effects of amphipathic drugs on a variety of cellular phenomena which involve shape changes of membranes.The Journal of Cell Biology 08/1976; 70(1):193-203. · 10.82 Impact Factor
- Current topics in hematology 02/1978; 1:71-125.