Pathogenesis of thyroid nodules in multinodular goiter.

American Journal Of Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.6). 12/1982; 109(2):215-23.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pathogenesis of nodule formation was studied in over 100 nodular goiters from a subendemic area. 60 surgical specimens were autoradiographed. Only one classical, well-encapsulated adenoma was detected. All other nodules were incompletely encapsulated and consisted of follicles that were morphologically and functionally identical to those of nonnodular parenchyma. Most characteristic was the tremendous interfollicular heterogeneity appearing on autoradiographs. Nodular goiters contain multiple foci and strands of fibrous tissue, which result from scarring of multiple hemorrhagic necroses occurring during goiter growth. Therefore, the slowly growing number of newly formed follicles has to squeeze into the meshes of an inelastic network of connective tissue. Nodular growth pattern is the inevitable consequence. Some particular nodules expand because of excessive accumulation of colloid. We conclude that most thyroid nodules in long-standing goiters consist of ordinary, polyclonal goiter follicles which expand in nodular fashion because they replicate within a mold made out of a poorly extensible network of connective tissue.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context: Nuclear receptors (NR) play a key role in endocrine signaling and metabolism and are important therapeutic targets in a number of hormone dependent malignancies. Studies on the role of NR in thyroid cancer are limited. Objective: The objective of the study was to systematically examine the expression of the 48 human NR in a series of benign and malignant thyroid tissues. Within the papillary carcinoma cohort, we sought to determine if NR expression differed significantly by BRAF mutation status. Patients and methods: RNA was isolated from multinodular goitre (MNG; n = 6), papillary carcinoma (PTC, n=14); follicular carcinoma (FC; n = 5) and Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC; n = 7). The 48 human NR were profiled in this panel by quantitative RT-PCR. Protein expression for selected NR (Rev-erbα and LXR-β) was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays comprising benign and malignant thyroid tissues. Results: Across all groups of benign and malignant thyroid tissue, there was prominent expression of LXR-β and ROR-γ. Key findings in PTC were marked overexpression of RXR-γ and Rev-erbα compared to MNG. Within the PTC cohort, when BRAF V600E tumors were compared with wild-type BRAF, there was relative upregulation of RXR-γ and Rev-erbα and downregulation of AR, ERR-γ and ROR-γ. In FC, EAR-2 was overexpressed, while PPAR-α and PPAR-δ were underexpressed compared to MNG. The NR expression profile of HCC was distinct, characterised by significant downregulation of a wide range of NR. IHC for Rev-erbα and LXR-β localised protein expression to the tumor cells. Moderate to strong Rev-erbα immunostaining was seen in 22 out of 23 PTC and overall, staining was stronger than in the benign group. Conclusions: These results represent the first systematic examination of NR expression in thyroid cancer. Our finding of tumor-specific patterns of NR expression as well as significant differences in NR expression between BRAF V600E and wild-type BRAF PTC provides a basis for further mechanistic studies and highlights potential novel therapeutic targets for this malignancy.
    Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 02/2014; 24(6). DOI:10.1089/thy.2013.0509 · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the specific sonographic features of primary thyroid lymphoma and its color Doppler pattern compared to nodular goiter. The sonographic findings for 13 surgically proven primary thyroid lymphomas were analyzed and compared to those for 27 nodular goiters. In accordance with the suggested pathologic patterns, the sonographic patterns of primary thyroid lymphoma could be classified into diffuse and nodular or segmental types based on the distribution of hypoechoic and echogenic structures within the lesions. Some common sonographic characteristics suggesting thyroid malignancy could not facilitate differentiation of primary thyroid lymphoma from nodular goiter. However, a central blood flow pattern would favor the diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma, whereas a peripheral pattern would suggest the diagnosis of nodular goiter. Primary thyroid lymphoma has characteristic sonographic and Doppler flow features. Along with several other parameters, a central blood flow pattern would highly suggest the diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma rather than nodular goiter. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
    Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 02/2015; 34(2):317-23. DOI:10.7863/ultra.34.2.317 · 1.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive assay of proliferative and hormonal activity in primary cell cultures derived from neonatal pig thyroid was carried out for the first time. Morphology and basal and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-stimulated secretion of thyroxin were evaluated in cultures, depending on the initial material placed into the culture: single cells or follicular conglomerates. Spontaneous and under chronic TSH stimulation folliculogenesis and formation of dome structures were assessed in culture. It was demonstrated that the cells expressed β-III-tubulin during prolonged cultivation with nerve growth factor.
    Cell and Tissue Biology 11/2013; 7(6). DOI:10.1134/S1990519X13060023


Available from