A practical method to measure the MTF of CT scanners.

Medical Physics (Impact Factor: 3.01). 01/1982; 9(5):758-60. DOI: 10.1118/1.595124
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Neutron imaging using low flux sources, such as accelerators or low flux nuclear reactors, produces images which contain significant amounts of noise. The noise indications are a result of high energy gamma radiation and some neutron scattering which hit the CCD detector despite heavy shielding. The amount of noise in an image is a factor of the exposure time required to produce images with adequate dynamic ranges. Minimization of noise and maximization of the dynamic range are inversely proportional and the exposure time is often extended to increase incident neutrons at the expense of noise. The resultant noise can be reduced using image filters; however, these filters usually increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) at the expense of spatial resolution. Three filters were applied to low dose neutron images acquired at RMC; a median filter, a Z-projection filter and a hybrid PDE filter. The median filter and the hybrid PDE filter showed similar performance in 3D with regards to SNR and spatial resolution, however, the median filter created numerous artefacts in the resultant tomogram. The Z-projection filter using 5 projections had the best performance in 2D improving the SNR of the raw image from 10.2 +/- 0.767 to 22.5 +/- 1.52 and the spatial resolution from 331 +/- 2.89 to 309 +/- 0.846, respectively. The Z-projection filter was not evaluated in 3D due to facility induced constraints. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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    ABSTRACT: The modulation transfer function (MTF) must be measured against the requirements of the specific digital imaging application under consideration in order to evaluate the performance of detector equipment and to further develop the detector by performing quality-assurance (QA) procedures. The purpose of this study was to measure the MTF in digital megavoltage images (DMVs) for radiation therapy (RT) by using an edge block. We used 6 megavolts (MVs) of energy for the pre-sampling MTF, along with a photo-stimulating phosphor-based computed radiography (CR) system and a hexalon lead screen that contained a terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide granular phosphor (Gd2O2S:Tb). The DMV MTF was measured at both low and high resolutions according to changes in the dose in monitor units (MUs) by using four different detector combinations: CR-IP (image plate: photo-stimulable phosphor screen), CR-IP-Lead (image plate + lead screen), CR-IP-Regular (fast front screen + image plate + fast front screen) and CR-IP-Fast (fast back screen + image plate + fast front screen). At a low resolution, the MTF 50% and the MTF 10% when using the CR-IP detector increased by about 30% and 46%, in proportion to the increase in the dose from 1 to 20 MU, respectively. At a high resolution, the CR-IP and the CR-IP-Lead detectors showed increases in the MTF of about 8% or 10% when the dose increased from 1 to 20 MU. The present study, therefore, evaluates how edge methods can be helpful in taking MTF measurements during QA tests of a megavoltage imaging (MVI) system.
    Journal- Korean Physical Society 12/2015; 65(11):1969-1975. DOI:10.3938/jkps.65.1969 · 0.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a typical parameter to measure the spatial resolution, which is an essential factor for evaluating the performance of computed tomography (CT) systems. It is known that the CT system does not follow the shift-invariant manner because of the cone-beam geometry and the transformation from the cylindrical coordinates to the axial coordinates when the image reconstruction is employed. Several studies reported that if the position of impulse receded from the center of a region of interest (ROI), the MTF degraded continuously. In this study, the trend of shift-variant characteristics of CT systems was measured and analyzed using a novel multi-cylindrical phantom. This study used to determine a point spread function (PSF) and MTF of a CT system using a simple cylindrical phantom. First of all, the optimal diameter of cylinder phantoms was experimentally determined as 70 mm to obtain reliable PSFs. Two kinds of field of views (FOVs), 40 cm and 60 cm, were used to vary reconstructed pixel sizes. The shift-variant MTF curves were acquired at five off-center positions per FOV. For the effective analysis of MTF shiftvariance, the integrated MTF values were calculated and used. In the result, the MTF slightly decreased as diameter increased from CT center in the central region within the distance of 10 cm. Moreover, a considerable MTF decrease suddenly occurred around the distance of 15 cm in the actual FOVs. The decreasing trend of the off-center spatial resolution of CT cannot be neglected in recent radiologic and radio-therapeutic fields requiring high degree of image precision, especially in sub-mm images. It is recommended that the ROI is laid on the CT center as close as possible. A novel cylindrical phantom was finally suggested to effectively measure PSFs with optimal diameters for clinical FOVs in this study. This phantom is cheap and convenient to use because it was only made of acryl with simple geometry. It is expected that the spatial resolution of CT can be easily monitored using our methodology in clinical CT sites.
    SPIE Medical Imaging; 03/2013