[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Side effects and resistance of cancer cells to cisplatin are major drawbacks to its application, and recently, the possibility of replacing cisplatin with nanocompounds has been considered. Most chemotherapeutic agents are administered intravenously, and comparisons between the interactions of platinum nanoparticles (NP-Pt) and cisplatin with blood compartments are important for future applications. This study investigated structural damage, cell membrane deformation and haemolysis of chicken embryo red blood cells (RBC) after treatment with cisplatin and NP-Pt. Cisplatin (4 μg/ml) and NP-Pt (2,6 μg/ml), when incubated with chicken embryo RBC, were detrimental to cell structure and induced haemolysis. The level of haemolytic injury was increased after cisplatin and NP-Pt treatments compared to the control group. Treatment with cisplatin caused structural damage to cell membranes and the appearance of keratocytes, while NP-Pt caused cell membrane deformations (discoid shape of cells was lost) and the formation of knizocytes and echinocytes. This work demonstrated that NP-Pt have potential applications in anticancer therapy, but potential toxic side effects must be explored in future preclinical research.
Nanoscale Research Letters 01/2014; 9(1):257. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 100 drugs are used to treat the many different cancers. They can be divided into agents with relatively broad, non-targeted specificity and targeted drugs developed on the basis of a more refined understanding of individual cancers and directed at specific molecular targets on different cancer cells. Individual drugs in both groups have been classified on the basis of their mechanism of action in killing cancer cells. The targeted drugs include proteasome inhibitors, toxic chimeric proteins and signal transduction inhibitors such as tyrosine kinase (non-receptor and receptor), serine/threonine kinase, histone deacetylase and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Increasingly used targeted vascular (VEGF) and platelet-derived endothelial growth factor blockade can provoke a range of pathological consequences. Many of the non-targeted drugs are cytotoxic, suppressing haematopoiesis as well as provoking cutaneous eruptions and vascular, lung and liver injury. Cytotoxic side effects of the targeted drugs occur less often and usually with less severity, but they show their own unusual adverse effects including, for example, a lengthened QT interval, a characteristic papulopustular rash, nail disorders and a hand-foot skin reaction variant. The term hypersensitivity is widely used across a number of disciplines but not always with the same definition in mind, and the terminology needs to be standardised. This is particularly apparent in cancer chemotherapy where anti-neoplastic drug-induced thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, anaemia, vascular disorders, liver injury and lung disease as well as many dermatological manifestations sometimes have an immune basis. The most insidious of all adverse consequences of targeted therapies, however, are tumour adaptation, increased malignancy and the invasive metastatic switch seen with anti-angiogenic drugs that inhibit the VEGF-A pathway. Adverse reactions to 44 non-targeted and 33 targeted, frequently used, chemotherapeutic drugs are presented together with discussions of diagnosis, premedications, desensitizations and importance of understanding the mechanisms underlying the various drug-induced reactions. There is need for wide-ranging acceptance of what constitutes a hypersensitivity reaction and for allergists to be more involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of chemotherapeutic drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions.
CANCER AND METASTASIS REVIEW 09/2013; · 9.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies were conducted to determine whether the progressive development of anemia associated with the antineoplastic drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cDDP) was the consequence of decreased erythropoietin (Epo) production due to cDDP-induced nephrotoxicity or selective inhibition of erythroid progenitor cells. Five days after a single intraperitoneal injection of cDDP, hypoxia-induced Epo production was not decreased in mice and was increased significantly in rats in spite of severe multifocal tubular necrosis. In both species, colony-forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-gm) and colony-forming units-erythroid (CFU-e) were reduced significantly, with a greater decrease in CFU-e. Studies of an anemic patient receiving cDDP also showed elevated Epo and decreased CFU-gm and CFU-e. In vitro exposure of mouse and human bone marrow to cDDP casued a dose-dependent inhibition of CFU-gm and CFU-e in both species, with human CFU-e showing greatest sensitivity. The results indicate that the primary hematologic toxicity of cDDP is directed at the hematopoietic stem cell compartment.
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