Cisplatin-induced hemolysis.

New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 51.66). 03/1980; 302(6):334-5. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198002073020607
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Oxaliplatin is one of the platinum chemotherapeutics that includes cisplatin and carboplatin. Antibodies to all three drugs have caused immune hemolytic anemia (IHA). In an investigation of oxaliplatin-induced IHA, the negative plasma control agglutinated oxaliplatin-coated red blood cells (RBCs). Previous preparations of this control had not agglutinated oxaliplatin- or cisplatin-coated RBCs. Drug-coated RBCs, prepared by incubating 1/10th volume of RBCs with 1 mg/mL drug in phosphate-buffered saline for 1 hour at 37°C, were incubated with plasma from random blood donors and patients. Plasma was treated with dithiothreitol to determine the immunoglobulin class. Hapten inhibition was performed by incubating plasma with solutions of oxaliplatin or cisplatin. Nineteen of 121 (16%) donors' plasma samples agglutinated oxaliplatin-coated RBCs; 7 of 102 (7%) donors' plasma samples agglutinated cisplatin-coated RBCs. Two of 50 (4%) patients' samples agglutinated oxaliplatin-coated RBCs. The agglutinin was immunoglobulin M and inhibited by oxaliplatin and cisplatin. An agglutinin reactive with oxaliplatin-coated RBCs was found in 16% of donors' and 4% of patients' samples. Inhibition by oxaliplatin and cisplatin indicates the antibody may be directed to platinum. The presence of this antibody in healthy individuals may be related to the increasing environmental presence of platinum in air and soil as a byproduct of automobile catalytic converters and pharmaceuticals in our water and food chain. This antibody in individuals without IHA suggests that testing untreated and enzyme-treated RBCs in the presence of a solution of drug may be the best method to investigate IHA caused by drugs in the platinum family.
    Transfusion 02/2011; 51(8):1740-4. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: More than 100 drugs are used to treat the many different cancers. They can be divided into agents with relatively broad, non-targeted specificity and targeted drugs developed on the basis of a more refined understanding of individual cancers and directed at specific molecular targets on different cancer cells. Individual drugs in both groups have been classified on the basis of their mechanism of action in killing cancer cells. The targeted drugs include proteasome inhibitors, toxic chimeric proteins and signal transduction inhibitors such as tyrosine kinase (non-receptor and receptor), serine/threonine kinase, histone deacetylase and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Increasingly used targeted vascular (VEGF) and platelet-derived endothelial growth factor blockade can provoke a range of pathological consequences. Many of the non-targeted drugs are cytotoxic, suppressing haematopoiesis as well as provoking cutaneous eruptions and vascular, lung and liver injury. Cytotoxic side effects of the targeted drugs occur less often and usually with less severity, but they show their own unusual adverse effects including, for example, a lengthened QT interval, a characteristic papulopustular rash, nail disorders and a hand-foot skin reaction variant. The term hypersensitivity is widely used across a number of disciplines but not always with the same definition in mind, and the terminology needs to be standardised. This is particularly apparent in cancer chemotherapy where anti-neoplastic drug-induced thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, anaemia, vascular disorders, liver injury and lung disease as well as many dermatological manifestations sometimes have an immune basis. The most insidious of all adverse consequences of targeted therapies, however, are tumour adaptation, increased malignancy and the invasive metastatic switch seen with anti-angiogenic drugs that inhibit the VEGF-A pathway. Adverse reactions to 44 non-targeted and 33 targeted, frequently used, chemotherapeutic drugs are presented together with discussions of diagnosis, premedications, desensitizations and importance of understanding the mechanisms underlying the various drug-induced reactions. There is need for wide-ranging acceptance of what constitutes a hypersensitivity reaction and for allergists to be more involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of chemotherapeutic drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions.
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    ABSTRACT: Side effects and resistance of cancer cells to cisplatin are major drawbacks to its application, and recently, the possibility of replacing cisplatin with nanocompounds has been considered. Most chemotherapeutic agents are administered intravenously, and comparisons between the interactions of platinum nanoparticles (NP-Pt) and cisplatin with blood compartments are important for future applications. This study investigated structural damage, cell membrane deformation and haemolysis of chicken embryo red blood cells (RBC) after treatment with cisplatin and NP-Pt. Cisplatin (4 μg/ml) and NP-Pt (2,6 μg/ml), when incubated with chicken embryo RBC, were detrimental to cell structure and induced haemolysis. The level of haemolytic injury was increased after cisplatin and NP-Pt treatments compared to the control group. Treatment with cisplatin caused structural damage to cell membranes and the appearance of keratocytes, while NP-Pt caused cell membrane deformations (discoid shape of cells was lost) and the formation of knizocytes and echinocytes. This work demonstrated that NP-Pt have potential applications in anticancer therapy, but potential toxic side effects must be explored in future preclinical research.
    Nanoscale Research Letters 01/2014; 9(1):257. · 2.52 Impact Factor