Tracheal or esophageal compression due to benign thyroid disease.
ABSTRACT Tracheal or esophageal compression was present in 91 (33 percent) of 273 consecutive patients with benign goiter during a 7 year experience. The underlying disease was nodular colloid goiter in 66 percent, adenoma in 21 percent, thyroiditis in 9 percent and Graves' disease in 4 percent. The incidence of tracheoesophageal compression was higher in patients with thyroiditis (67 percent) than in those with colloid goiter (46 percent). Thirty of 91 patients were completely asymptomatic but had marked tracheal deviation on roentgenography. Two thirds presented with significant dyspnea, or dysphagia or both. A long history of goiter preceding the onset of symptoms and progressive worsening of compression symptoms after its onset were common in the latter group. Previous radiographs demonstrating significant tracheal deviation during a previous presymptomatic period were available in 11 of 36 dyspneic patients. Sudden tracheal occlusion developed in 3 percent and required emergency treatment. Tracheal compression occurred more often and when present was a more ominous symptom. Compression manifestations were more frequent in patients with multinodular goiter, were more likely to appear when the underlying disorder was thyroiditis affected the tracheal more often than the esophagus and were generally gradually progressive with time. A clinical spectrum ranging from a presymptomatic tracheal compression stage to one wherein progressive worsening of symptoms occurs is suggested. After symptoms of tracheal compression become clinically manifest, the occurrence of complete airway occlusion may be sudden and unpredictable. Early operation whenever roentgenographic evidence of tracheal deviation becomes manifest is recommended.
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ABSTRACT: Local infiltration of adjacent anatomic structures and soft tissues of the neck from well-differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a relatively infrequent occurrence. We report our experience with 21 such cases seen in our department over the past 20 years. All patients were treated by total thyroidectomy and total or partial excision of the infiltrated adjacent structures. Papillary carcinoma was the most frequent type of primary tumor seen. Following the definitive surgery, all patients were scanned with radioactive iodine (131I). In case of isotope entrapment, a curative dose 131I was given. All patients in our series were required to receive thyroid hormone replacement. Four patients died as a result of their disease. Uncontrolled local disease and distant metastases were present at the time of death. Three patients died of unrelated causes. Two-thirds of the patients are still alive (from 1 to 19 years after the treatment).Journal of Surgical Oncology 06/1985; 29(2):99-104. DOI:10.1002/jso.2930290207 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This report describes the operative experience in 72 patients with substernal goiters treated over the past 5.5 years. Even though the incidence of multinodular goiter has decreased in the United States due to the routine use of iodized salt, we continue to see a large number of patients with massive goiters, predominantly from Caribbean Islands. The diagnosis of substernal goiter was made on clinical examination augmented by such radiologic studies, as chest x-ray, barium esophagograms, airway films, and CT scans. Computed tomographic (CT) scanning was particularly helpful in evaluating the extent of substernal extension. Confirmation of the extent of disease was made at the time of operation. Ninety percent of the patients had tracheal deviation and 85% were symptomatic from airway compression. Esophageal compression was noted in 60% of the patients. All patients had a long history of goiter with recent onset of pressure symptoms. Flow-volume-loop studies were performed in 44% of the patients and were useful in the evaluation of pressure symptoms. However, the decision for operation was made primarily based on clinical evaluation of signs and symptoms. Sixteen patients in this group were admitted with acute airway distress requiring airway intubation or semi-emergency decompression. Only 1 patient required mediastinal splitting, while all others were operated by the cervical approach. The decision as to the extent of thyroidectomy was made at the time of operation. Drains were routinely used because of the large dead space. One patient developed a hematoma in the recovery room and required re-exploration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Head & Neck 07/1989; 11(4):325-30. DOI:10.1002/hed.2880110407 · 3.01 Impact Factor