Tracheal or esophageal compression due to benign thyroid disease.
ABSTRACT Tracheal or esophageal compression was present in 91 (33 percent) of 273 consecutive patients with benign goiter during a 7 year experience. The underlying disease was nodular colloid goiter in 66 percent, adenoma in 21 percent, thyroiditis in 9 percent and Graves' disease in 4 percent. The incidence of tracheoesophageal compression was higher in patients with thyroiditis (67 percent) than in those with colloid goiter (46 percent). Thirty of 91 patients were completely asymptomatic but had marked tracheal deviation on roentgenography. Two thirds presented with significant dyspnea, or dysphagia or both. A long history of goiter preceding the onset of symptoms and progressive worsening of compression symptoms after its onset were common in the latter group. Previous radiographs demonstrating significant tracheal deviation during a previous presymptomatic period were available in 11 of 36 dyspneic patients. Sudden tracheal occlusion developed in 3 percent and required emergency treatment. Tracheal compression occurred more often and when present was a more ominous symptom. Compression manifestations were more frequent in patients with multinodular goiter, were more likely to appear when the underlying disorder was thyroiditis affected the tracheal more often than the esophagus and were generally gradually progressive with time. A clinical spectrum ranging from a presymptomatic tracheal compression stage to one wherein progressive worsening of symptoms occurs is suggested. After symptoms of tracheal compression become clinically manifest, the occurrence of complete airway occlusion may be sudden and unpredictable. Early operation whenever roentgenographic evidence of tracheal deviation becomes manifest is recommended.
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ABSTRACT: Swallowing-related quality of life (QoL) in patients with benign thyroid goiters is not much studied. The aim of this study was to assess swallowing function impairment in patients with benign goiters, compare it to a control population, and also find the impact of thyroidectomy and various factors on the outcome of swallowing function. We performed a prospective case-control study from September 2009 to September 2011 which consisted of 124 patients who were to undergo primary thyroid surgery and 100 age- and sex-matched controls. A translated and validated modified swallowing quality-of-life (SWAL-QOL) questionnaire was used to assess patients' perception of dysphagia. Presurgery scores of patients and controls and pre- and postsurgery scores (>6 months after surgery) of patients were compared. The mean age of males and females in the control and patient groups were 37.7 vs. 39.5 years and 37.4 vs. 39.8 years, respectively. Twelve patients (9.7%) complained of dysphasia at presentation. Sixty-three patients (50.8%) underwent total thyroidectomy and 61 (49.2%) had hemithyroidectomy at the time of initial evaluation, 75, 23.4, and 1.6% of patients were euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid, respectively. Presurgery scores of patients in all of the 11 domains of the SWAL-QOL were lower compared to those of controls. Comparing separately with the matched controls, females had significant differences in nine domains (except for sleep and fatigue) of the SWAL-QOL questionnaire but males did not. Postoperatively, both male and female patients showed significant improvement in the scores of all the domains. Female gender, hyperthyroidism, thyroid nodularity, retrosternal extension, procedure, and weight of the resected specimen were the factors associated with significant improvement in various domains. Dysphagia seems to be an underestimated problem in patients with benign goiters. Uncomplicated thyroidectomy results in significant improvement in swallowing-related QoL irrespective of patient profile and extent of thyroidectomy.World Journal of Surgery 03/2012; 36(6):1293-9. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Retrosternal goiter (RSG) is a term that has been used to describe a goiter that extends beyond the thoracic inlet. Surgery plays an important role in the treatment of these patients, but whether all or selected patients with RSG should undergo this operation remains controversial. Our aim is to look into the demographics, presentation, and treatment of patients with RSG and essentially to determine the role of surgery in its treatment. Retrospective study, teaching hospital-based. Retrospective analysis of 537 thyroidectomies performed at King Khalid University Hospital between 2003 and 2010. The twenty-six patients with RSG were analyzed further, with regard to demographics, presentation, indications, and outcome of surgical treatment. Statistical analysis was performed, where age was expressed as mean and range, and other variables were presented as numbers and percentage. There were 26 patients (4.8%) with RSG out of 537 thyroidectomies, who underwent an operation for removal of RSGs, in a seven-year period. The most common presentation was dyspnea (34.6%) and the surgical procedure predominantly used was total thyroidectomy. The RSGs were removed by collar incision in 96% of the cases. The final histological diagnosis revealed malignancy in 26.9% of the thyroid specimens. There was no mortality and minor complications occurred in nine patients. The presence of an RSG is an indication for surgery owing to the lack of effective medical treatment, the higher incidence of symptoms related to compression, low surgical morbidity, and the risk of malignancy.Annals of thoracic medicine. 04/2012; 7(2):57-60.
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ABSTRACT: Despite lack of evidence-based support, chest X-ray (CXR) prior to thyroid surgery is often used to identify tracheal deviation that may predict difficulty with intubation. The aim of this study is to establish the utility of preoperative CXR to assess tracheal deviation in this group of patients. We analyzed a prospective database of 1,000 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid surgery. Patients' charts were reviewed for demographic data, CXR readings, other imaging findings, anesthesia records, and pathology findings. Patients with tracheal deviation (TD) on CXR were compared to patients without (no TD). Six hundred eighty-nine (69 %) patients had a CXR performed prior to surgery. TD was identified in 252 (37 %) patients while 437 (63 %) did not have TD. The two groups did not significantly differ in mean age, BMI, or gender. Patients with TD on CXR had larger thyroid glands (51 ± 4 vs. 28 ± 2 g, p < 0.001) and reported a higher rate of tracheal compressive symptoms (19 vs. 12 %, p = 0.005). However, this did not translate into more difficult intubations as reported by the anesthesiologist (5 vs. 7 %, p = 0.31) or more intubation attempts (1.2 ± 0 vs. 1.1 ± 0, p = 0.1). Lung findings on CXR that resulted in further workup were identified in 32 (5 %) patients, with additional pathology found in only 6 (1 %) patients. There is no correlation between a finding of tracheal deviation on preoperative CXR and difficult intubation in thyroid patients. Therefore, CXR for the sole purpose of identifying tracheal deviation in thyroid surgery candidates is not warranted.World Journal of Surgery 08/2012; 36(11):2584-9. · 2.23 Impact Factor