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A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and types of coccidia species in slaughter goats and sheep in Tanzania. A total of 91% (191210) of goats and 93% (4043) of sheep were infected with coccidia. The mean coccidia oocyst counts were 3200 g −1 faeces (range 100–46000) in goats and 2900 g−1 faeces (range 100–11400) in sheep. Eimeria species found in goats were Eimeria alijevi (63%). Eimeria arloingi (55%), Eimeria caprina (26%), Eimeria ninakohlyakimouae (26%), Eimeria caprovina (16%), Eimeria hirci (5%), Eimeria jolchijeui (5%) and Eimeria christenseni (3%). Eimeria crandallis (96%), Eimeria parva (92%), Eimeria ovinoidalis (29%), Eimeria bakuensis (29%), Eimeria faurei (29%), Eimeria ahsata (21%) and Eimeria granulosa (8%) infected the sheep. This is the first report on coccidia infecting goats in Tanzania. The presence of pathogenic species of Eimeria in goats (Eimeria alijevi, E. arloingi, E. ninakohlyakimovae and E. christenseni) and in sheep (E. ovinoidalis and E. ahsata) suggests that coccidiosis may be contributing to the enteric syndromes affecting small ruminants in the country.
Small Ruminant Research 06/1996; 21(2):127-131. DOI:10.1016/0921-4488(96)00860-7 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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The levels and causes of losses, in connection with weight groups from birth to natural weaning, have been discussed in detail. These include morality rates at neonatal (1-14 days), preweaning (14-60 days), and natural weaning (60-105 days) periods. The birth-weight group above 1.5 kg showed no incidence of twin losses in the neonatal period. During the preweaning period, the parity number of dam-related mortality rate followed the expected course, particularly under the free-range system with higher losses within the first-parity-group-born lambs, being lowest at the fifth parity, before increasing again thereafter. The situation under the semi-tethered system was, however, different, with lambs of more than the seventh-parity dam groups suffering the greatest preweaning losses. In both zones, lambs born during the dryspell-minor wet season (H = 12.5%; SH = 11.9%) had much higher losses than those born in the other seasons. In the post-preweaning to natural weaning period (60-105 days), slightly more losses to single (12.1%) than twin (11.5%) lambs were recorded in the humid zone, while in the subhumid zone, the mortality incidence in twins (14.3%) was highly significantly greater than in singles (7.7%). Although lambs' mortality rate varied seasonally, much higher losses occurred in the major-wet season (H = 19.1%; SH = 15.6%) at 105 days in both zones. The losses of weaned (>105 days) to adult sheep (>365 days) over the study period from the first to the second year showed higher significant losses in males (H = 17.3%; SH = 30.4%) than in females (H = 16.0%; SH = 17.2%). Over the study period, weaned to yearling stock (>105-365 days) suffered significantly higher losses (H = 30.9%; SH = 32.5%) than the adults over 365 days old (H = 7.1%; SH = 9.6%). The distribution of the mortality rates over the months was distinctly seasonal (bi-modal), rising steadily from May to June and July of the major-wet season and followed by a drop in August (dryspell month), and then rising again September, peaking in October (months of the minor-wet season), with minimum values in February and April (in the transitional dry-wet season). A higher percentage of the classified main causes of losses was attributable to the category endoparasite-diarrhoea-loss of weight complex among younger stock (H = 37.8%; SH = 35.7%) than among adult stock (H = 6.3%; SH = 3.7%). Losses in orphans, weak, and low-birth-weight lambs, and losses through drowning, ranked second (H = 21.0%; SH = 19.7%).
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 01/1996; 113(1‐6). DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0388.1996.tb00595.x · 2.06 Impact Factor
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