Arterial morphometry in neonatal and infant spontaneously hypertensive rats.
ABSTRACT Media/lumen area ratios and density of arteries and arterioles were obtained from tail sections of newborn and 2-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) on prenatal/postnatal high salt diets or standard salt diets. Fixation was by a solution which caused minimal contraction and no differences in contractile response between SHR and WKY. Standard salt SHR of both ages demonstrated significantly greater media/lumen ratios in intermediate size arterioles but not in smaller or larger arterial categories. Prenatal high salt caused significant medial thickening in 49- to 58- micrometer arterioles of newborn SHR. Maintenance on high salt to 2 weeks caused significant medial thickening i SHR arterioles of 19-38 micrometer outside diameter. High salt significantly increased the density of terminal arterioles in 2-week SHR.
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ABSTRACT: The anatomy and embryology of the aortic arch and its branching tributaries (brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery) in man and animals are well substantiated. However, the anatomical variations and morphometry of the aortic arch and its branching tributaries in rat fetus at the 21st gestation day have not been studied. Pregnant rats were hysterectomized and the arterial systems of 114 fetuses were injected with a polymerisable resin through the umbilical artery. After maceration, the vascular casts were dissected out and prepared for observations under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The resulting SEM pictures were studied with a picture analyser and different vessel parameters (diameters, lengths and angles) were measured. The success rate of the microvascular cast injection was 46.5%. Out of the 53 observed aortic arch casts, 98.1% showed the classical branching pattern and one (1.9%) had no brachiocephalic trunk. Morphological analysis showed many differences, which were not linked to the litter. The statistical processing of the measurements enabled us to determine that the aorta diameter after the branching of the left subclavian artery was the most replicable parameter. Moreover, the results revealed some strong correlations between different parameters. There are probably no discrete categories among the various observed parameters as diameters and angles. Some parameters show very little variability and can thus be used as reference points for further studies such as the comparison of a control population with a population treated with a relevant xenobiotic.Anatomy and Embryology 07/2005; 209(5):357-69. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The renal vasculature of Wistar Kyoto spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), prior to (4-5 week) and during established hypertension (21 week) and those of age-matched Wistar Kyoto normotensive rats (WKY) were morphometrically and pharmacologically studied. Under dilated conditions, the vascular resistances (RVR) of the isolated kidneys of young and adult SHR were similar to WKY. Morphometric measurements of renal vasculature indicated that the cross-sectional area of the intima and adventitia and its subcomponents were similar in adult SHR and WKY. With the exception of the preglomerular arterioles, all the renal arteries of adult SHR exhibited elevated cross-sectional quantities of total media, medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and extracellular space. Analysis of the SMCs indicated the presence of increased numbers of SMC layers and/or an increase in the SMC volume-to-surface area ratio in arteries sampled from adult SHR. Vascular contraction produced by infusing norepinephrine, BaCl2, angiotensin II, or by stimulating the renal nerves elevated the RVR to a greater degree in adult SHR than in WKY. The sensitivity of the renal vasculature to the various contractile agents was similar in adult SHR and WKY. When compared with WKY, prehypertensive SHR also exhibited increased cross-sectional quantities of arterial media and elevated amplitudes of RVR change in response to norepinephrine and renal nerve stimulation. However, the vascular contractile sensitivity to norepinephrine was reduced. Our results indicate that renovascular wall thickening and the hypercontractile reactivity associated with such a change precedes hypertension in SHR. In prehypertensive SHR, elevations in RVR might be counterbalanced by a decreased norepinephrine sensitivity. An increase in the norepinephrine contractile sensitivity and further vascular thickening with age could elevate the RVR and establish hypertension.Circulation Research 10/1988; 63(3):518-33. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neonatal sympathectomy of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and control Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) was performed by a combined treatment with antiserum to nerve growth factor and guanethidine during the first 4 weeks after birth. The development of hypertension was completely prevented in the treated SHR: at 28 to 30 weeks of age, systolic blood pressure of treated SHR was 139 +/- 2 mm Hg as compared with 195 +/- 8 mm Hg in untreated SHR. The extent of sympathectomy was verified by histofluorescence. Fluorescence histochemistry for catecholamine-containing nerves showed a complete absence of adrenergic nerves in the mesenteric arteries of treated rats. A supersensitivity to norepinephrine was exhibited by mesenteric arteries, anococcygeus muscle, and tail arteries from the treated SHR and WKY. In the mesenteric vascular bed, maximal response to norepinephrine was significantly reduced by sympathectomy. Sympathectomy also abolished the responses (e.g., generation of excitatory junctional potentials) of tail arteries to electrical stimulation of perivascular nerves. Morphometric measurements of three categories of mesenteric arteries showed that sympathectomy had no effect on the hypertrophic change of smooth muscle cells in the conducting vessels, but it prevented the hyperplastic changes of the muscle cells from reactive, muscular arteries and small resistance vessels. These results suggest that one of the primary roles of the overactive sympathetic nervous system in the development of hypertension in SHR is manifested through its trophic effect on the arteries of SHR. This trophic effect appears to cause a hyperplastic change in the smooth muscle cells in the reactive and resistance vessels, thereby contributing to the development of hypertension in older SHR.Hypertension 10/1987; 10(3):328-38. · 6.87 Impact Factor