Part and whole practice for a tracking task: effects of task variables and amount of practice.
ABSTRACT Whole and part methods were compared to test Naylor's hypothesis that, in a task of high organization, whole methods should become more efficient with increased complexity. Task complexity was varied by having two levels of display-control relationship. The part versus whole comparisons were made in two conditions, one requiring early changeover, the other later changeover to whole task practice. In the early changeover condition no significant differences were found between part and whole methods at either level of complexity. With later changeover, on the other hand, pure part training was inferior to whole training in the high complexity task. This result was present only in the first block of whole practice. No differences were found with the low complexity task. The experiment offers limited support for Naylor's hypothesis. The predicted superiority of the whole method in the high complexity task was only short lived and disappeared with further practice. Furthermore, this prediction was upheld only with later changeover to whole task performance.
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ABSTRACT: For this report, the part-task and whole-task training and context- dependent and context-independent presentation literature was reviewed. For part-/whole-task training, the influences of early research on the selection of training methods, relationships between training methods and task characteristics and trainees' individual differences, and different methods of part-task training were discussed. For context-dependent/independent presentation, early research findings, relationships between trainees' cognitive styles and the presentation methods, presentation methods and transfer of training, and presentation methods and trainees' attention were discussed. Generally, the research showed that whole-task training is the preferred method if the task is simple and can be reasonably approximated by the trainee. However, if the task is dangerous or highly complex and can be easily divided into subtasks, part-task training is the better choice. Context-dependent methods are favored over context-independent methods for recall and recognition. However, if the acquired knowledge and skills must be selectively applied in a variety of situations, context independent presentation methods are recommended. Context dependency, Computer-based instruction, Part-task, Presentation style, Whole-task, Training method.
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ABSTRACT: Researchers conducted 2 experiments that used backward transfer to improve the efficiency of part-task training for a desktop flight simulator. In Experiment 1, a part-task group showed positive transfer but did not perform as well as a whole-task group. Backward-transfer analysis indicated that only a subset of the component tasks was critical to the criterion task. In Experiment 2, a part-task training regime that used the critical component tasks was compared with a whole-task regime and a part-task regime composed of noncritical component tasks. Results indicated that the critical part-task regime was as effective as the whole-task regime, validating the utility of the backward-transfer technique.Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied 10/1996; 2(3):227-49. DOI:10.1037//1076-898X.2.3.227 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although simulators have been widely used as training environments in different industries (e.g. oil and nuclear power), there is little rigorous empirical work evaluating the effectiveness of the training methods employed. This article examines the use of simulator training in process control environments. The results of an exploratory field study are reported and the current practices of simulator training are described. The study revealed that simulator training varied considerably across organisations, often with little theoretical or empirical work to guide training design. To evaluate the utility and effectiveness of different methods of simulator training in process control environments, the article also presents a literature review of the research on laboratory- and field-based training. Several training methods are identified as having particular potential for temporal and adaptive transfer and are to be empirically tested in future studies.Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science 11/2009; 10(6):489-509. DOI:10.1080/14639220902982192