Distribution of glutamate receptor subtypes in the vertebrate retina.
ABSTRACT The distribution of glutamate receptor subunit/subtypes in the vertebrate retina was investigated by immunocytochemistry using anti-peptide antibodies against AMPA (GluR1-4), kainate (GluR6/7) and metabotropic (mGluR1 alpha) receptors. All receptor subtypes examined are present in the mammalian retina, but they are distributed differentially. GluR1 is present in the inner plexiform layer as well as amacrine and ganglion cell bodies. GluR2 is present mainly in the outer plexiform layer and bipolar cells. An anti-GluR2/3 antibody labels both plexiform layers and various cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. GluR4 is present on Müller glial cells. In the goldfish retina, GluR2 immunoreactivity is prominent in the Mb type of ON-bipolar cells, including the dendrites and the large synaptic terminal. The putative dendritic localization is surprising, because no depolarizing conductance increase induced by glutamate is thought to be present in these cells. An AMPA receptor at a presynaptic terminal is also unusual, and probably provides feedback control of glutamate release. GluR6/7 is most widespread in the retina, being present in horizontal, bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells. Ion channels composed of GluR6 are now known to be phosphorylated by protein kinase A, resulting in current potentiation. This property and our present observation together suggest that the glutamate receptors previously studied electrophysiologically by others in horizontal cells may contain GluR6. mGluR1 alpha is found mostly in the inner plexiform layer; its localization partially overlaps with that of the inositol trisphosphate receptor in the retina. Our results suggest that, in the retina, glutamate receptor subtypes may be expressed in selective cell types according to their specific functions.
- SourceAvailable from: Martha U Gillette[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Thalamocortical neurons in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) dynamically convey visual information from retina to the neocortex. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) exerts multiple effects on neural integration in dLGN; however, their direct influence on the primary sensory input, namely retinogeniculate afferents, is unknown. In the present study, we found that pharmacological or synaptic activation of type 1 mGluRs (mGluR(1)s) significantly depresses glutamatergic retinogeniculate excitation in rat thalamocortical neurons. Pharmacological activation of mGluR(1)s attenuates excitatory synaptic responses in thalamocortical neurons at a magnitude sufficient to decrease suprathreshold output of these neurons. The reduction in both NMDA and AMPA receptor-dependent synaptic responses results from a presynaptic reduction in glutamate release from retinogeniculate terminals. The suppression of retinogeniculate synaptic transmission and dampening of thalamocortical output was mimicked by tetanic activation of retinogeniculate afferent in a frequency-dependent manner that activated mGluR(1)s. Retinogeniculate excitatory synaptic transmission was also suppressed by the glutamate transport blocker TBOA (dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid), suggesting that mGluR(1)s were activated by glutamate spillover. The data indicate that presynaptic mGluR(1) contributes to an activity-dependent mechanism that regulates retinogeniculate excitation and therefore plays a significant role in the thalamic gating of visual information.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 09/2012; 32(37):12820-31. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0687-12.2012 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glutamate is believed to be the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate retina, and its fast postsynaptic effects are elicited by activating NMDA-, kainate-, or AMPA-type glutamate receptors. We have characterized the ionotropic glutamate receptors present on retinal horizontal cells of the skate, which possess a unique all-rod retina simplifying synaptic circuitry within the outer plexiform layer (OPL). Isolated external horizontal cells were examined using whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. Glutamate and its analogues kainate and AMPA, but not NMDA, elicited dose-dependent currents. The AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 at 100 microm abolished glutamate-elicited currents. Desensitization of glutamate currents was removed upon coapplication of cyclothiazide, known to potentiate AMPA receptor responses, but not by concanavalin A, which potentiates kainate receptor responses. The dose-response curve to glutamate was significantly broader in the presence of the desensitization inhibitor cyclothiazide. Polyclonal antibodies directed against AMPA receptor subunits revealed prominent labeling of isolated external horizontal cells with the GluR2/3 and GluR4 antibodies. 1-Naphthylacetyl spermine, known to block calcium-permeable AMPA receptors, significantly reduced glutamate-gated currents of horizontal cells. Downregulation of glutamate responses was induced by increasing extracellular ion concentrations of Zn2+ and H+. The present study suggests that Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors likely play an important role in shaping the synaptic responses of skate horizontal cells and that alterations in extracellular concentrations of calcium, zinc, and hydrogen ions have the potential to regulate the strength of postsynaptic signals mediated by AMPA receptors within the OPL.Visual Neuroscience 09/2009; 26(4):375-87. DOI:10.1017/S0952523809990149 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are tetrameric protein complexes usually comprising two NR1 and two NR2 subunits. Different combinations of four potential NR2 subunits (NR2A-D) confer diversity in developmental expression, subsynaptic localization, and functional characteristics, including affinity for neurotransmitter. NR2B-containing NMDARs, for example, exhibit relatively high affinity both for glutamate and the coagonist glycine. Although multiple NMDAR subtypes can colocalize at individual synapses, particular subtypes often mediate inputs from distinct functional pathways. In retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), NMDARs contribute to synaptic responses elicited by light stimulus onset ("ON") and offset ("OFF"), but roles for particular NMDAR subtypes, and potential segregation between the ON and OFF pathways, have not been explored. Moreover, elements in the retinal circuitry release two different NMDAR coagonists, glycine and d-serine, but the effects of endogenous coagonist release on the relative contribution of different NMDAR subtypes are unclear. Here, we show that coagonist release within the retina modulates the relative contribution of different NMDARs in the ON pathway of the rat retina. By pharmacologically stimulating functional pathways independently in acute slices and recording synaptic responses in RGCs, we show that ON inputs, but not OFF inputs, are mediated in part by NMDARs exhibiting NR2B-like pharmacology. Furthermore, suppressing release of NMDAR coagonist reduces NMDAR activation at ON synapses and increases the relative contribution of these putative NR2B-containing receptors. These results demonstrate direct evidence for evoked coagonist release onto NMDARs and indicate that modulating coagonist release may regulate the relative activation of different NMDAR subtypes in the ON pathway.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 03/2009; 29(5):1469-79. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4240-08.2009 · 6.75 Impact Factor