Recall accuracy for prescription medications: self-report compared with database information.
ABSTRACT A methodological study was performed in 1992 to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and noncontraceptive estrogens that had been dispensed during the previous 12 years. A sample of 560 individuals dispensed NSAIDs or estrogens, and 140 individuals without NSAID/estrogen dispensations were selected from the Group Health Cooperative pharmacy database. Demographic, behavioral, and drug information was ascertained by telephone interview for 356 persons with and 98 persons without NSAID/estrogen dispensations. Of those with only a single NSAID dispensation, 41% (95% confidence interval (CI) 32-50%) were able to recall any NSAID use compared with 85% (95% CI 76-94%) for those with multiple NSAID dispensations. Thirty percent (95% CI 24-36%) recalled the NSAID name, and 15% (95% CI 10-20%) recalled both the name and dose. For estrogens, 78% (95% CI 70-86%) recalled the name, but only 26% (95% CI 17-34%) recalled the name and dose. Age, but not sex, appeared to influence recall accuracy: Persons 50-65 years of age recalled the NSAID name more accurately than those aged 66-80 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-3.4). A similar advantage was noted for 50- to 65-year-old women in recalling the estrogen name (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.6-3.9). Drug name was recalled more frequently for exposures stopped 2-3 years prior to interview than for those stopped 7-11 years prior (OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.7, and OR = 2.4, 95% CI 0.9-6.7, for NSAIDs and estrogens, respectively). Specificity was consistently high, ranging from 92% to 100%. This study suggests significant underascertainment of self-reported prescription drug exposure but little evidence that exposures are overreported.
- SourceAvailable from: I. Y. Wong[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effects of trait anxiety on self-reported driving behaviours through its negative impacts on Central Executive functions. Following a self-report study that found trait anxiety to be significantly related to driving behaviours, the present study extended the predictions of Eysenck and Calvo’s Attentional Control Theory, proposing that anxiety affects driving behaviours, in particular driving lapses, through its impact across the Central Executive. Seventy-five Australian drivers participated in the study, completing the Parametric Go/No-Go and n-back tasks, as well as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Driving Behaviour Questionnaire. While both trait anxiety and processing efficiency of the Central Executive was found to significantly predict driving lapses, trait anxiety remained a strong predictor of driving lapses after processing efficiency was controlled for. It is concluded that while processing efficiency of the central Executive is a key determinant of driving lapses, another Central Executive function that is closer to the driving lapses in the trait anxiety - driving lapses relationship may be needed. Suggestions regarding how to improve future trait anxiety - driving behaviours research are discussed.Journal of Risk Research 06/2014; DOI:10.1080/13669877.2014.919516 · 1.27 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess whether antidepressant prescribing during pregnancy decreased following release of U.S. and Canadian public health advisory warnings about the risk of perinatal complications with antidepressants. We analyzed data from 228,876 singleton pregnancies among women (aged 15-44 years) continuously enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid with full pharmacy benefits (1995-2007). Antidepressant prescribing was determined through outpatient pharmacy dispensing files. Information on sociodemographic and clinical factors was obtained from enrollment files and linked birth certificates. An interrupted time series design with segmented regression analysis was used to quantify the impact of the advisory warnings (2002-2005). Antidepressant prescribing rates increased steadily from 1995 to 2001, followed by sharper increases from 2002 to late 2004. Overall antidepressant prescribing prevalence was 34.51 prescriptions [95 % confidence interval (CI) 33.37-35.65] per 1,000 women in January 2002, and increased at a rate of 0.46 (95 % CI 0.41-0.52) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month until the end of the pre-warning period (May 2004). During the post-warning period (October 2004-June 2005), antidepressant prescribing decreased by 1.48 (95 % CI 1.62-1.35) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month. These trends were observed for both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and non-SSRI antidepressants, although SSRI prescribing decreased at a greater rate. We conclude that antidepressant prescribing to pregnant women in Tennessee Medicaid increased from 1995 to late 2004. U.S. and Canadian public health advisories about antidepressant-associated perinatal complications were associated with steady decreases in antidepressant prescribing from late 2004 until the end of the study period, suggesting that the advisory warnings were impactful on antidepressant prescribing in pregnancy.Archives of Women s Mental Health 10/2013; 17(1). DOI:10.1007/s00737-013-0383-6 · 1.96 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Antibiotic use in 759 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients and 589 controls was compared. Neither total antibiotic use (odds ratio=0.7, 95% confidence interval=0.5-1.2), nor antibiotic use by site, was associated with total NHL, or NHL subtypes. There were no trends with frequency or age at first use (P trend=0.23 and 0.26, respectively).British Journal of Cancer 02/2008; 98(1):161-4. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604127 · 4.82 Impact Factor