Immunocytochemical quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus in the brain: Correlations with dementia
ABSTRACT The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia is unclear, and the underlying pathological substrate has been a matter of debate. In a prospectively clinically characterized population of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients we investigated the relationship between the clinical syndrome of HIV-associated dementia and the presence and relative quantity of immunocytochemical markers for HIV-1 (gp41 antibody), and for macrophages and microglia (HAM-56 antibody). Sections from the basal ganglia and frontal lobes from the brains of 51 patients were studied, and the data were stratified for severity of dementia (16 nondemented, 12 mildly demented, 23 severely demented), rate of dementia progression, duration of AIDS, use of antiretrovirals, and several other demographic features. We found a highly significant correlation between the degree of macrophage staining and the severity of dementia but only a borderline correlation between the presence and amount of gp41-positive cells and dementia. Several nondemented patients showed abundant gp41 immunoreactivity, and some severely demented showed little to no gp41 immunoreactivity. Other correlations with the immunostaining data, including antiretroviral use, were not significant. We conclude that the presence of macrophages and microglia is a better correlate with HIV-associated dementia than is the presence and amount of HIV-infected cells in the brain. These data support the concept that the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia is likely due to indirect effects of HIV infection of the brain, possibly through the actions of macrophages and microglia.
- SourceAvailable from: Corinne Barat[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Eicosanoids, including cysteinylleukotrienes (cysLTs), are found in the central nervous system (CNS) of individuals infected with HIV-1. Few studies have addressed the contribution of cysLTs in HIV-1-associated CNS disorders. We demonstrate that conditioned medium from human astrocytes treated with leukotriene C4 (LTC4) increases the transmigration of HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells across an in vitro blood–brain barrier (BBB) model using cultured brain endothelial cells. Additional studies indicate that the higher cell migration is linked with secretion by astrocytes of CX3CL1/fractalkine, a chemokine that has chemoattractant activity for CD4+ T cells. Moreover, we report that the enhanced cell migration across BBB leads to a more important CD4+ T cell-mediated HIV-1 transfer toward macrophages. Altogether data presented in the present study reveal the important role that LTC4, a metabolite of arachidonic acid, may play in the HIV-1-induced neuroinvasion, neuropathogenesis and disease progression.Virology 04/2014; s 454–455:128–138. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.02.007 · 3.28 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the retina, increased inflammatory response can cause visual impairment during HIV infection in spite of successful anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The HIV-1 Tat protein is implicated in neurodegeneration by eliciting a cytokine response in cells of the CNS, including glia. The current study investigated whether innate immune response in human retinal Muller glia could be immune-modulated to combat inflammation. Endocannabinoids, N-arachidonoylethanolamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are used to alleviate Tat- induced cytotoxicity and rescue retinal cells. The neuroprotective mechanism involved suppression in production of pro-inflammatory and increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines, mainly through the MAPK pathway. The MAPK regulation was primarily by MKP-1. Both endocannabinoids regulated cytokine production by affecting at the transcriptional level the NF-κB complex, including IRAK1BP1 and TAB2. Stability of cytokine mRNA is likely to have been influenced through Tristetraprolin. These findings have direct relevance in conditions like immune-recovery uveitis where anti-retroviral therapy has helped immune reconstitution. In such conditions drugs to combat overwhelming inflammatory response would need to supplement HAART. Endocannabinoids and their agonists may be thought of as neurotherapeutic during certain conditions of HIV-1 induced inflammation.Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 01/2014; 59. DOI:10.1016/j.mcn.2014.01.001 · 3.73 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70 % of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers.Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 03/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11481-013-9443-y · 3.17 Impact Factor