Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene overexpression results in increased activity of the ATP-dependent glutathione S-conjugate export pump and cisplatin resistance.
ABSTRACT The ATP-dependent glutathione S-conjugate export pump (GS-X pump) has been suggested to play a role in the mechanism of cisplatin resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and GS-X pump activity and whether GS-X pump overexpression results in cisplatin resistance. We transfected the human gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) gene into a human small-cell lung cancer cell line, SBC-3, producing SBC-3/GCS. The intracellular GSH content of SBC-3/GCS was twice that of the parental line, its GS-X pump activity was significantly enhanced and cellular cisplatin accumulation decreased. SBC-3/GCS showed higher resistance (relative resistance value of 7.4) to cisplatin than the parental line SBC-3. These data indicate that gamma-GCS gene overexpression induces cellular cisplatin resistance associated with increases in both the GSH content and GS-X pump activity, resulting in reduced cisplatin accumulation. In conclusion, GS-X pump expression is related to cellular GSH metabolism and involved in cisplatin resistance.
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ABSTRACT: Resistance to the oxyanion arsenite in the parasite Leishmania is multifactorial. We have described previously the frequent amplification of the ABC transporter gene pgpA, the presence of a non-PgpA thiol-metal efflux pump and increased levels of glutathione and trypanothione in resistant cells. Other loci are also amplified, although their role in resistance is unknown. By gene transfection, we have characterized one of these novel genes. It corresponds to gsh1, which encodes gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, an enzyme involved in the rate-limiting step of glutathione biosynthesis. Transfection of gsh1 in wild-type cells increased the levels of glutathione and trypanothione to levels found in resistant mutants. These transfectants were not resistant to metals. However, when gsh1 was transfected in partial revertants, it conferred resistance. As pgpA is frequently co-amplified with gsh1, we co-transfected the two genes into both wild-type and partial revertants. Arsenite resistance levels in wild-type cells could be accounted for by the contribution of PgpA alone. In the partial revertant, the gsh1 and pgpA gene product acted synergistically. These results support our previous suggestion that PgpA recognizes metals conjugated to thiols. Furthermore, amplification of gsh1 overcomes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of trypanothione, contributing to resistance. In addition, the results suggest that at least one more factor acts synergistically with the gsh1 gene product.The EMBO Journal 07/1997; 16(11):3057-65. · 9.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The majority of short- and long-lived cellular proteins are degraded by the activities of the 26S proteasome, a large multi-catalytic protease. Its unique function places it as a central regulatory activity for many important physiological processes. Lactacystin is a very specific 26S proteasome inhibitor and represents an excellent tool for demonstrating that a pathway exhibits proteasome-dependent biochemical regulation. Exposure of HepG2 cells to lactacystin resulted in robust elevation of GLCLC mRNA levels, followed by an increase in GSH concentrations. GLCLC is the gene that encodes the catalytic subunit for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH). Inhibition of non-proteasome, protease activities did not induce GLCLC. Gel mobility shift assays and expression of CAT activity from heterologous reporter vectors identified Nrf2 mediation of the GLCLC antioxidant response element, ARE4, as the mechanism by which lactacystin induced GLCLC. These studies have identified 26S proteasome activity as a central regulatory pathway for glutathione synthesis.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2000; 270(1):311-7. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to demonstrate that glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pi is directly involved in the intrinsic and acquired resistance of cancer cells to anticancer drugs. To this end, GST-pi antisense cDNA was transfected into the cultured human colon cancer cell line M7609, which expresses an innately high level of GST-pi and shows intrinsic drug resistance, and into an M7609 strain with acquired resistance to Adriamycin (ADR;i.e., M7609/ADR cells). The changes in the sensitivity of these transfectants to various anticancer drugs were investigated. The intracellular concentrations of GST-pi in M7609/anti-1 cells and M7609/anti-2 cells, two clones that were established by transfection of GST-pi antisense cDNA into M7609 cells, were decreased to approximately half of those detected in the parent cells (M7609) and in the control cells transfected with vector alone (M7609/pLJ). The sensitivities of the antisense transfectants in relation to ADR, cisplatin, melphalan, and etoposide were increased -3.3-fold, 2.3-fold, 2.2-fold, and 2.1-fold, respectively, compared with those of M7609 and M7609/pLJ. On the other hand, the sensitivities of the antisense transfectants to Taxol, vincristine, 5-fluorouracil, and mitomycin C were not significantly changed. Similarly, the transfection of antisense cDNA into M7609/ADR cells resulted in the reduction of intracellular GST-pi concentration (by about half) and an increased sensitivity to ADR (4.4-fold), but no increase in 5-fluorouracil sensitivity. Thus, GST-pi is considered to be a multidrug resistance factor that is responsible for both the intrinsic and acquired resistance of cancer cells to anticancer drugs such as ADR, cisplatin, melphalan, and etoposide.Cancer Research 09/1996; 56(15):3577-82. · 8.65 Impact Factor