Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene overexpression results in increased activity of the ATP-dependent glutathione S-conjugate export pump and cisplatin resistance.
ABSTRACT The ATP-dependent glutathione S-conjugate export pump (GS-X pump) has been suggested to play a role in the mechanism of cisplatin resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and GS-X pump activity and whether GS-X pump overexpression results in cisplatin resistance. We transfected the human gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) gene into a human small-cell lung cancer cell line, SBC-3, producing SBC-3/GCS. The intracellular GSH content of SBC-3/GCS was twice that of the parental line, its GS-X pump activity was significantly enhanced and cellular cisplatin accumulation decreased. SBC-3/GCS showed higher resistance (relative resistance value of 7.4) to cisplatin than the parental line SBC-3. These data indicate that gamma-GCS gene overexpression induces cellular cisplatin resistance associated with increases in both the GSH content and GS-X pump activity, resulting in reduced cisplatin accumulation. In conclusion, GS-X pump expression is related to cellular GSH metabolism and involved in cisplatin resistance.
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ABSTRACT: The glutathione (GSH) antioxidant defense system plays a central role in protecting mammalian cells against oxidative injury. Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) is the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis and is a heterodimeric holoenzyme composed of catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunits. As a means of assessing the cytoprotective effects of enhanced GSH biosynthetic capacity, we have developed a protein transduction approach whereby recombinant GCL protein can be rapidly and directly transferred into cells when coupled to the HIV TAT protein transduction domain. Bacterial expression vectors encoding TAT fusion proteins of both GCL subunits were generated and recombinant fusion proteins were synthesized and purified to near homogeneity. The TAT-GCL fusion proteins were capable of heterodimerization and formation of functional GCL holoenzyme in vitro. Exposure of Hepa-1c1c7 cells to the TAT-GCL fusion proteins resulted in the time- and dose-dependent transduction of both GCL subunits and increased cellular GCL activity and GSH levels. A heterodimerization-competent, enzymatically deficient GCLC-TAT mutant was also generated in an attempt to create a dominant-negative suppressor of GCL. Transduction of cells with a catalytically inactive GCLC(E103A)-TAT mutant decreased cellular GCL activity in a dose-dependent manner. TAT-mediated manipulation of cellular GCL activity was also functionally relevant as transduction with wild-type GCLC(WT)-TAT or mutant GCLC(E103A)-TAT conferred protection or enhanced sensitivity to H(2)O(2)-induced cell death, respectively. These findings demonstrate that TAT-mediated transduction of wild-type or dominant-inhibitory mutants of the GCL subunits is a viable means of manipulating cellular GCL activity to assess the effects of altered GSH biosynthetic capacity.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 11/2009; 243(1):35-45. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To achieve a reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer chemotherapy, it is crucial to clarify the characteristics of MDR cells generated by various types of chemotherapeutic agents and to find novel targets. Cisplatin- and paclitaxel-resistant HeLa sublines (HeLa/CDDP and HeLa/TXL, respectively) were established by continuous exposure and their cellular changes were examined based on growth inhibition assays, the transport activity of P-glycoprotein/MDR1, and a RT-PCR analysis of MDR-related factors. HeLa/CDDP cells showed cross-resistance to platinum derivatives, whereas HeLa/TXL cells were resistant to a variety of MDR1 substrates. Transport activity of MDR1 was reduced in HeLa/CDDP cells and the expression of MDR1 was significantly accelerated in HeLa/TXL cells, compared with HeLa cells. In addition, the expression levels of MDR-related transporters (MRP1-5 or BCRP), betatubulin which is a target for taxanes, and apoptosis-regulated factors were comparable among the three cell lines. On the other hand, the mRNA levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase, but not gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, were higher in HeLa/CDDP cells than in HeLa and HeLa/TXL cells. HeLa/CDDP cells showed decreased activity and expression of MDR1 and overexpression of gamma-GT but not gamma-GCS whereas the activity of MDR1 in HeLa/TXL cells was significantly enhanced. Thus, the molecular changes to HeLa cells caused by continuous exposure to cisplatin or paclitaxel were in part clarified, and therefore an understanding of the cellular changes induced by chemotherapeutic agents will be necessary to establish a strategy for reversing MDR.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 01/2007; 58(6):785-93. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While chemotherapy provides useful palliation, advanced lung cancer remains incurable since those tumors that are initially sensitive to therapy rapidly develop acquired resistance. Resistance may arise from impaired drug delivery, extracellular factors, decreased drug uptake into tumor cells, increased drug efflux, drug inactivation by detoxifying factors, decreased drug activation or binding to target, altered target, increased damage repair, tolerance of damage, decreased proapoptotic factors, increased antiapoptotic factors, or altered cell cycling or transcription factors. Factors for which there is now substantial clinical evidence of a link to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) resistance to chemotherapy include MRP (for platinum-based combination chemotherapy) and MDR1/P-gp (for non-platinum agents). SPECT MIBI and Tc-TF scanning appears to predict chemotherapy benefit in SCLC. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the strongest clinical evidence is for taxane resistance with elevated expression or mutation of class III beta-tubulin (and possibly alpha tubulin), platinum resistance and expression of ERCC1 or BCRP, gemcitabine resistance and RRM1 expression, and resistance to several agents and COX-2 expression (although COX-2 inhibitors have had minimal impact on drug efficacy clinically). Tumors expressing high BRCA1 may have increased resistance to platinums but increased sensitivity to taxanes. Limited early clinical data suggest that chemotherapy resistance in NSCLC may also be increased with decreased expression of cyclin B1 or of Eg5, or with increased expression of ICAM, matrilysin, osteopontin, DDH, survivin, PCDGF, caveolin-1, p21WAF1/CIP1, or 14-3-3sigma, and that IGF-1R inhibitors may increase efficacy of chemotherapy, particularly in squamous cell carcinomas. Equivocal data (with some positive studies but other negative studies) suggest that NSCLC tumors with some EGFR mutations may have increased sensitivity to chemotherapy, while K-ras mutations and expression of GST-pi, RB or p27kip1 may possibly confer resistance. While limited clinical data suggest that p53 mutations are associated with resistance to platinum-based therapies in NSCLC, data on p53 IHC positivity are equivocal. To date, resistance-modulating strategies have generally not proven clinically useful in lung cancer, although small randomized trials suggest a modest benefit of verapamil and related agents in NSCLC.Critical reviews in oncology/hematology 09/2010; 75(3):173-234. · 5.27 Impact Factor