γ-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase Gene Overexpression Results in Increased Activity of the ATP-Dependent Glutathione S-Conjugate Export Pump and Cisplatin Resistance
ABSTRACT The ATP-dependent glutathione S-conjugate export pump (GS-X pump) has been suggested to play a role in the mechanism of cisplatin resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and GS-X pump activity and whether GS-X pump overexpression results in cisplatin resistance. We transfected the human gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) gene into a human small-cell lung cancer cell line, SBC-3, producing SBC-3/GCS. The intracellular GSH content of SBC-3/GCS was twice that of the parental line, its GS-X pump activity was significantly enhanced and cellular cisplatin accumulation decreased. SBC-3/GCS showed higher resistance (relative resistance value of 7.4) to cisplatin than the parental line SBC-3. These data indicate that gamma-GCS gene overexpression induces cellular cisplatin resistance associated with increases in both the GSH content and GS-X pump activity, resulting in reduced cisplatin accumulation. In conclusion, GS-X pump expression is related to cellular GSH metabolism and involved in cisplatin resistance.
Clinical Cancer Research 03/2004; 10(6):2158-2167. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-03-0362 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acquired anticancer drug resistance in cancer cells is often a result of an increase in levels of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters that export anticancer drugs from cancer cells, suggesting that anticancer drugs may induce genes that mediate drug resistance in cancer cells. In this study, the induction of anticancer drug transporter gene expression by Adriamycin was examined in human lung cancer cell lines. Increased expression of MDR1, MRP5 and SMRP mRNA was observed 48 hr after the initiation of Adriamycin exposure in human lung cancer PC-14 cells and cisplatin-resistant PC-14/CDDP cells, in a dose-dependent manner as measured by TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. The levels of MRP-1, MRP2 and LRP mRNA were not altered by Adriamycin exposure. The biologic functions of the MRP5 and SMRP genes have not been fully clarified. To elucidate the relationship between Adriamycin resistance and MRP5 and SMRP, mRNA levels of MRP5 and SMRP in Adriamycin-resistant cell lines were compared with the parental cells. Increased expression of MRP5 and SMRP mRNA was observed in all 3 cell lines (SBC-3/ADM, AdR MCF7 and K562/ADM) by Northern blot analysis and RNase protection assay. These results suggest that subacute exposure of lung cancer cells to Adriamycin induced MRP5 and SMRP and that long-term exposure with Adriamycin selected the MRP5- and SMRP-overexpressing lung cancer cells. MRP5 and SMRP is a candidate molecule for acquired Adriamycin resistance in addition to MDR1. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.International Journal of Cancer 11/2001; 94(3):432-437. DOI:10.1002/ijc.1490 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glutathione is an important antioxidant that is involved in numerous cellular activities. γ-Glutamylcysteine synthetase (γGCS) is a key regulatory enzyme in the synthesis of glutathione. It is a heterodimeric zinc metalloprotein that belongs to a unique class of proteins that gain activity due to formation of a reversible disulfide bond. The two subunits of γGCS exhibit differential and coordinate transcription regulation. In addition, the subunits are regulated at the posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels. These various levels of regulation allow numerous stimuli to induce or inhibit activity. J. Cell. Physiol. 182:163–170, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 01/2000; 182(2):163-170. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4652(200002)182:23.0.CO;2-1 · 3.87 Impact Factor