Detection of borreliacidal antibody by using acridine orange and flow cytometry

Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA.
Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology (Impact Factor: 2.51). 02/1994; 1(1):44-50.
Source: PubMed


Borreliacidal antibody has been shown to be important for the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease and determination of immune status. Our results show that borreliacidal antibody can be rapidly and accurately detected by flow cytometry. Acridine orange was added to normal and immune sera containing Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in the presence and absence of complement prior to data acquisition by flow cytometry. The flow cytometric parameters of side scatter and detection of acridine orange fluorescence were used to determine events per minute (number of labeled spirochetes), percent shift in fluorescence (number of dead spirochetes), and mean channel fluorescence (intensity of fluorescence-labeled spirochetes) of acridine orange-labeled spirochetes. Borreliacidal antibody was detected as early as 4 h, with optimal detection 16 to 24 h after incubation of B. burgdorferi organisms with immune serum and complement. Our results also showed that complement was necessary for detection of borreliacidal antibody. Flow cytometry with acridine orange-labeled spirochetes provides a rapid means for detection of borreliacidal antibody.

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    ABSTRACT: We used flow cytometry to determine levels of borreliacidal antibodies in hamsters after vaccination with a commercially available canine Lyme disease vaccine. In addition, we evaluated the ability of vaccinated hamsters to resist infection with several isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi. Borreliacidal antibodies could be detected 1 week after a primary vaccination, peaked at weeks 3 to 5, and then rapidly declined. One week after a booster vaccination, borreliacidal activity was detected at a dilution of 1:10,240, and it decreased fourfold by week 10 after the booster vaccination. Vaccinated hamsters were protected against infection with < or = 10(6) B. burgdorferi 297 organisms during the peak borreliacidal response (5 weeks after primary vaccination or 2 weeks after booster vaccination). However, hamsters were not fully protected from development of Lyme arthritis when the titer of borreliacidal antibodies was < 1:5,120. In addition, no significant borreliacidal activity was induced against B. burgdorferi C-1-11, LV4, or BV1, which belong to three other seroprotective groups. These studies demonstrate that vaccination with the canine Lyme disease vaccine induces protective antibodies against B. burgdorferi 297. However, significant levels of borreliacidal antibodies are not produced until 5 weeks after vaccination, and protection is short-lived. In addition, no borreliacidal activity was induced against other isolates of B. burgdorferi. Because of this, the incorporation of multiple isolates or protein subunits may be necessary to increase the effectiveness of future vaccines.
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrated that borreliacidal activity caused by immune serum and complement can easily be differentiated by flow cytometry from killing activity caused by antimicrobial agents that are commonly used for the treatment of Lyme disease. Assay suspensions containing normal or immune serum were incubated with Borrelia burgdorferi in the presence or absence of ceftriaxone, doxycycline, penicillin, and phosphomycin for 2, 8, 16, and 24 h. Samples containing killing activity were identified by using flow cytometry and acridine orange. In 30 min, the effects of immune serum and complement were easily distinguished from the killing of spirochetes by antimicrobial agents by adding fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-hamster immunoglobulin. This simple procedure greatly enhanced the usefulness of the borreliacidal assay by eliminating a major source of false-positive reactions.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first direct evidence that adverse effects, particularly severe destructive arthritis, can develop in vaccinated hamsters after challenge with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates. Hamsters were vaccinated with a whole-cell preparation of Formalin-inactivated B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolate C-1-11 in adjuvant. A severe destructive arthritis was readily evoked in vaccinated hamsters challenged with the homologous B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolate C-1-11 before high levels of protective borreliacidal antibody developed. Once high levels of C-1-11 borreliacidal antibody developed, hamsters were protected from homologous challenge and development of arthritis. Vaccinated hamsters, however, still developed severe destructive arthritis when challenged with other isolates of the three genomic groups of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolate 297, Borrelia garinii isolate LV4, and Borrelia afzelii isolate BV1) despite high levels of C-1-11 specific borreliacidal antibody. Vaccines that contained whole spirochetes in adjuvant induced destructive arthritis, but this effect was not dependent on the isolate of B. burgdorferi sensu lato or the type of adjuvant. These studies demonstrate that caution is necessary when employing whole spirochetes in adjuvant for vaccination to prevent Lyme borreliosis. Additional studies are needed to identify the antigen(s) responsible for the induction and activation of arthritis and to define the immune mechanisms involved.
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