Postmortem stability of monoamines, their metabolites, and receptor binding in rat brain regions.
ABSTRACT The effects of postmortem delay, time of storage, and freezing, thawing, and refreezing tissue samples were studied in postmortem rat brain using conditions that reflect the handling of postmortem human brain before neurochemical analysis. The levels of monoamines and metabolites in the striatum and cingulate and occipital cortex were measured using alumina extraction and HPLC methods. Binding of raclopride to dopamine D2, SCH-23390 to dopamine D1, ketanserin to serotonin 5-HT2, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin to serotonin 5-HT1A, and cholecystokinin (CCK)-8 to CCK-B sites was measured in tissue homogenates from the striatum or fronto-parietal cortex. An 18-h postmortem delay before dissection and storage resulted in region-specific changes in monoamine and metabolite levels. Binding to striatal D1 and frontoparietal cortex CCK-B sites was reduced over the course of a 27-h postmortem delay. Binding to D2 and 5-HT sites was relatively stable. Storage of tissue for up to 8 months also resulted in region-specific changes in monoamine and metabolite levels. No changes in receptor binding were seen after long-term storage. Freezing, thawing, and refreezing tissue samples resulted in increased levels of striatal 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and decreased binding to striatal D2 sites. These results demonstrate time-, temperature-, and storage-dependent regional differences in the stability of monoamines and their metabolites and in binding to various receptor sites. These differences in stability and binding should be accounted for to interpret accurately the effects of neurological disorders on neurotransmitter dynamics in postmortem human brain tissue.
SourceAvailable from: Rafael Rodriguez-PuertasBrain Research 01/1996; 728(1):65-71. DOI:10.1016/S0006-8993(96)00385-X · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total doses of 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1000 or 1700 mg PCB 180/kg body weight by gavage. Dose-responses were analyzed using benchmark dose modeling based on dose and adipose tissue PCB concentrations. Body weight gain was retarded at 1700 mg/kg during loading dosing, but recovered thereafter. The most sensitive endpoint of toxicity that was used for risk characterization was altered open field behavior in females; i.e. increased activity and distance moved in the inner zone of an open field suggesting altered emotional responses to unfamiliar environment and impaired behavioral inhibition. Other dose-dependent changes included decreased serum thyroid hormones with associated histopathological changes, altered tissue retinoid levels, decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, decreased follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in males and increased expression of DNA damage markers in liver of females. Dose-dependent hypertrophy of zona fasciculata cells was observed in adrenals suggesting activation of cortex. There were gender differences in sensitivity and toxicity profiles were partly different in males and females. PCB 180 adipose tissue concentrations were clearly above the general human population levels, but close to the levels in highly exposed populations. The results demonstrate a distinct toxicological profile of PCB 180 with lack of dioxin-like properties required for assignment of WHO toxic equivalency factor. However, PCB 180 shares several toxicological targets with dioxin-like compounds emphasizing the potential for interactions.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 2934495. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104639 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using high pressure liquid chromatography, we find more brainstem 5‐HT and 5‐HIAA in suicides compared with nonpsychiatric, sudden death controls throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the brainstem DRN and MRN. This suggests that 5‐HT synthesis in suicides is greater within all DRN subnuclei and the MRN compared with controls.Synapse 03/2014; 68(3). DOI:10.1002/syn.21695 · 2.43 Impact Factor