Monocytes and dendritic cells (DC) can be purified from fresh peripheral blood (PB) based on their expression of CD33, CD13, and CD14. Whereas DC can be identified as CD33+ CD14dim or CD13+CD14dim cells, monocytes can be identified as CD33+CD14bright or CD13+CD14bright cells. Rheumatoid synovial fluid (SF) and synovial tissue (ST) non-T cells were found to be enriched in CD33+CD14dim cells compared with PB. Whereas 4 to 14% of normal or rheumatoid PB non-T cells were CD33+ and CD14dim, in rheumatoid SF or ST these cells comprised 20 to 45% of non-T mononuclear cells. Synovial CD33+CD14dim cells assumed a typical dendritic morphology on in vitro culture. Freshly isolated CD33+CD14dim PB DC precursors express low levels of HLA-DQ, CD40, and B7, which increase after in vitro incubation. In contrast, freshly isolated SF DC constitutively expressed these markers, and increased densities of HLA-DR and MHC class I molecules. Rheumatoid SF DC showed a specifically enhanced ability to stimulate autologous PB T cells compared with PB DC, or PB or SF monocytes. PB DC or monocytes preincubated in granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, TNF-alpha, or both cytokines exhibited enhanced expression of HLA-DR. Furthermore, DC preincubated in both granulocyte-macrophage-CSF and TNF-alpha were better stimulators of the autologous MLR than DC preincubated in medium, or in either cytokine alone. The data indicate that DC are enriched in rheumatoid SF and ST, and display a more differentiated phenotype than PB DC. These results suggest that PB DC accumulate in the synovium where they undergo phenotypic and functional differentiation in situ, which may be mediated by local cytokines. DC may play an important role in the ongoing presentation of antigen to autoreactive T cells in RA synovium.
"Emerging data from studies performed in animal models and in human patients indicate that lymphatic drainage may be reduced in various chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, such as in rheumatoid arthritis , psoriasis ,  or in inflammatory bowel disease , . At the same time tissue biopsies have shown that DCs present in psoriatic lesions , , inflamed synovium  or inflamed intestine  display an activated phenotype. The relationship between lymphatic function and the induction of adaptive immunity in the context of these inflammatory conditions warrants further investigation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) induced by topical application of haptens is a commonly used model to study dermal inflammatory responses in mice. Several recent studies have indicated that CHS-induced skin inflammation triggers lymphangiogenesis but may negatively impact the immune-function of lymphatic vessels, namely fluid drainage and dendritic cell (DC) migration to draining lymph nodes (dLNs). On the other hand, haptens have been shown to exert immune-stimulatory activity by inducing DC maturation. In this study we investigated how the presence of pre-established CHS-induced skin inflammation affects the induction of adaptive immunity in dLNs. Using a mouse model of oxazolone-induced skin inflammation we observed that lymphatic drainage was reduced and DC migration from skin to dLNs was partially compromised. At the same time, a significantly stronger adaptive immune response towards ovalbumin (OVA) was induced when immunization had occurred in CHS-inflamed skin as compared to uninflamed control skin. In fact, immunization with sterile OVA in CHS-inflamed skin evoked a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response comparable to the one induced by conventional immunization with OVA and adjuvant in uninflamed skin. Striking phenotypic and functional differences were observed when comparing DCs from LNs draining uninflamed or CHS-inflamed skin. DCs from LNs draining CHS-inflamed skin expressed higher levels of co-stimulatory molecules and MHC molecules, produced higher levels of the interleukin-12/23 p40 subunit (IL-12/23-p40) and more potently induced T cell activation in vitro. Immunization experiments revealed that blockade of IL-12/23-p40 during the priming phase partially reverted the CHS-induced enhancement of the adaptive immune response. Collectively, our findings indicate that CHS-induced skin inflammation generates an overall immune-stimulatory milieu, which outweighs the potentially suppressive effect of reduced lymphatic vessel function.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e99297. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099297 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Despite the fact that mDCs have been extensively studied in immune disorders in mice and man and that they have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA , functional data on naturally occurring mDCs in RA, including those expressing CD1c, are scarce. Previous studies on mDCs in RA were based on CD33/CD14 expression, describing a larger mDC population than the recently defined CD1c+ mDCs , since CD33 is not only expressed on CD1c+ mDCs but also on CD16+ and BDCA-3+ DC subpopulations . Only a small percentage of CD1c+ mDCs express CD14 and the function of these double-positive mDCs is still unknown . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) are potent T cell-activating antigen-presenting cells that have been suggested to play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses in many disease states, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite this, studies that have reported on the capacity of naturally occurring circulating mDCs to regulate T cell activation in RA are still lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic and functional properties of naturally occurring CD1c (BDCA-1)+ mDCs from synovial fluid (SF) compared to those from peripheral blood (PB) of RA patients.
CD1c+ mDC numbers and expression of costimulatory molecules were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis in SF and PB from RA patients. Ex vivo secretion of 45 inflammatory mediators by mDCs from SF and PB of RA patients was determined by multiplex immunoassay. The capacity of mDCs from SF to activate autologous CD4+ T cells was measured.
CD1c+ mDC numbers were significantly increased in SF versus PB of RA patients (mean 4.7% vs. 0.6%). mDCs from SF showed increased expression of antigen-presenting (human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II, CD1c) and costimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86 and CD40). Numerous cytokines were equally abundantly produced by mDCs from both PB and SF (including IL-12, IL-23, IL-13, IL-21). SF mDCs secreted higher levels of interferon γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monokine induced by interferon γ (MIG) and, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), but lower macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) levels compared to mDCs from PB. mDCs from SF displayed a strongly increased capacity to induce proliferation of CD4+ T cells associated with a strongly augmented IFNγ, IL-17, and IL-4 production.
This study suggests that increased numbers of CD1c+ mDCs in SF are involved in the inflammatory cascade intra-articularly by the secretion of specific T cell-attracting chemokines and the activation of self-reactive T cells.
"The lining layer consists mainly of type A and type B synoviocytes, alternatively called intimal macrophages and fibroblast-like synoviocytes, respectively [2–4]. In the sublining layers, there is infiltration of a variety of cells, including dendritis cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes [5, 6]. In addition, the formation of pseudo-germinal center, consisting of CD20+ B cells in the center surrounded by CD4+ T cells, is occasionally observed . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the characteristic features of synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated by TNF inhibitors in order to delineate their mechanism of action. Synovial tissues were obtained during the joint surgical operations from 12 RA patients who had been treated with TNF inhibitors in addition to disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for at least 5 months (5-25 months) (RA-TNFinh), and from 12 RA patients who had been treated with DMARDs alone (RA-DMARD), and were evaluated under light microscopy. There were no significant differences in disease duration, serum CRP levels, DAS28, Steinbrocker's stages on X-ray and treatment regimen except for TNF inhibitors between RA-TNFinh and RA-DMARD. The most prominent changes in the synovium from RA-TNFinh were discoid fibrosis in the subliming layers of the synovium with degeneration and detachment of synoviocytes and marked decrease in vasculatures. There was no significant difference in these synovial features between RA patients with infliximab and those with etanercept. Interestingly, appearance of osteoclasts was observed in RA-TNFinh (3 out of 12 patients) and in RA-DMARD (1 out of 12 patients). These results indicate that not only infliximab, but etanercept might have direct actions on synovial cells in the deep lining layers of the synovium, leading to the discoid fibrosis thereof. Moreover, the data confirm that the deep lining or sublining layers of the synovium are the most important portions that steer the disease process of RA synovitis.
Rheumatology International 04/2013; 33(10). DOI:10.1007/s00296-013-2743-y · 1.52 Impact Factor
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