Increased concentrations of angiotensin-converting enzyme in the intimal hyperplasia of experimental vein grafts.

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.38). 04/1994; 23(4):594-601. DOI: 10.1097/00005344-199404000-00011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Local renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity were recently implicated in development of intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury, but little is known about the local responses of angiotensin I/II (AI/AII) and local ACE activity in vein graft physiology. The activity of the local ACE system of experimental vein grafts was examined in this study. The right carotid artery was divided and bypassed in 21 New Zealand White rabbits, using the right external jugular vein. The left external jugular vein was used as a control. Veins and vein grafts were harvested after 14 days. Rings from both vessels were studied in vitro under isometric tension, and dose-response curves to AI and AII were obtained. AI responses were also measured in the presence of captopril. The tissue concentrations of ACE in both vessels were estimated by spectrophotometry and were localized by immunohistochemistry. The responses of the veins to AI and AII were multiphasic, whereas the responses of vein grafts were sigmoid-shaped. Incubation of vein grafts with captopril significantly decreased the sensitivity to AI (p < 0.0001). Immunohistochemical localization identified ACE in the endothelial layer of the veins and vein grafts, but also at a greater density in the intimal hyperplasia of the vein graft. The concentration of ACE was 1.92 +/- 0.16 U/g (wet weight; mean +/- SEM, n = 9) in vein grafts and 1.39 +/- 0.05 U/g in the veins (38% increase, p < 0.05, n = 9).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A growing number of studies suggest that the outcome after invasive coronary treatment may be in part genetically determined. Here, we review the present status of outcome prediction of invasive coronary treatments by using genetic markers. Although some studies found an association between one or another genetic marker with one or another clinical endpoint, many other studies found no such relations; to date, none of the genetic markers that have been investigated in association studies are used in routine clinical practice to prospectively assess the prognosis following invasive coronary treatment or to decide upon therapeutic strategies. Many associations between genetic markers and certain clinical endpoints were initially reported in small studies but could not be confirmed in larger ones. Some of these discrepancies may be explained by publication bias. Some genetic variants may have true effects on clinical endpoints, which, albeit biologically interesting, do not bear much clinical relevance. On the other hand, many-if not most-studies that have been published to date are more or less grossly underpowered and very rarely report on the results of an a priori power analysis. Thus, there is still a need for further high-quality studies designed to investigate the specific contribution of genetic factors to the outcome after invasive coronary interventions.
    Human Mutation 05/2006; 27(4):307-22. · 5.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vein graft neointimal hyperplasia involves proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells into the vessel intima, and ultimately engenders accelerated atherosclerosis and vein graft failure. Since a myriad of stimuli provoke smooth muscle cell proliferation, molecular therapies for vein graft disease have targeted mechanisms fundamental to all cell proliferation - the 'cell-cycle' machinery. Preclinically, the most successful of these therapies has been edifoligide (E2F decoy), a double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide that binds to the transcription factor known as E2F. Recently, PRoject of Ex vivo vein GRaft Engineering via Transfection (PREVENT) III and IV demonstrated that edifoligide failed to benefit human vein grafts employed to treat lower-extremity ischemia and coronary heart disease, respectively. The clinical failure of edifoligide calls into question previous models of vein graft disease and lends credence to recent animal studies demonstrating that vein graft arterialization substantially involves the immigration into the vein graft of a variety of vascular progenitor cells. Future vein graft disease therapies will likely target not only proliferation of graft-intrinsic cells, but also immigration of graft-extrinsic cells.
    Future Cardiology 07/2006; 2(4):493-501.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Experimental studies have suggested a role for the local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the response to vascular injury. Clinical data support that aldosterone, via activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), is an important mediator of vascular damage in humans with cardiovascular disease. In mineralocorticoid-sensitive target tissue, aldosterone specificity for MR is conferred enzymatically by the cortisol-inactivating enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2 (11βHSD2). However, the role of MR/aldosterone signaling in the venous system has not been explored. We hypothesized that MR expression and signaling in venous smooth muscle cells contributes to the arterialization of venous conduits and the injury response in vein bypass grafts. MR immunostaining was observed in all samples of excised human peripheral vein graft lesions and in explanted experimental rabbit carotid interposition vein grafts, with minimal staining in control greater saphenous vein. We also found upregulated transcriptional expression of both MR and 11βHSD2 in human vein graft and rabbit vein graft, whereas control greater saphenous vein expressed minimal MR and no detectable 11βHSD2. The expression of MR and 11βHSD2 was confirmed in cultured human saphenous venous smooth muscle cells (hSVSMCs). Using an adenovirus containing a MR response element-driven reporter gene, we demonstrate that MR in hSVSMCs is capable of mediating aldosterone-induced gene activation. The functional significance for MR signaling in hSVSMCs is supported by the aldosterone-induced increase of angiotensin II type-1 receptor gene expression that was inhibited by the MR antagonist spironolactone. The upregulation of MR and 11βHSD2 suggests that aldosterone-mediated tissue injury plays a role in vein graft arterialization.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 05/2011; 301(1):H41-7. · 4.01 Impact Factor