Effects of repeated administration of a high dose of methamphetamine on dopamine and glutamate release in rat striatum and nucleus accumbens.
ABSTRACT We examined effects of a high dose of methamphetamine (MA) (4.02 mg free base/kg, s.c., at 2-h intervals, 4 injections) on extracellular concentrations of monoamines such as dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and those of glutamate and other several amino acids in rat striatum (ST) and nucleus accumbens (NA) using in vivo microdialysis. Five days after the microdialysis, tissue concentrations of monoamines were measured. The toxic dose of MA markedly increased extracellular concentrations of DA, and decreased those of DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA in both ST and NA. Magnitude of the increase in DA release was not different between ST and NA. Extracellular concentrations of glutamate showed a gradual increase in ST, but not in NA, while other amino acids showed no changes in both ST and NA. Tissue concentrations of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HIAA were decreased to 43-58% of control values in both ST and NA, whereas those of DA, DOPAC and HVA showed 43-54% decrease in ST but no changes in NA. These data suggest that the marked increase of DA release is not directly related to the MA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. The increase in glutamate release found only in ST may be related to the dopaminergic damage in ST. It may be that enhanced release in DA and glutamate act synergistically to cause the dopaminergic neurotoxicity in ST. However, enhancement in glutamate release did not appear to be essential for the MA-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity.
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ABSTRACT: Acute symptoms of methamphetamine-induced psychosis are similar to those of primary schizophrenia. Understanding similarities or differences in the biological substrate of these psychoses could lead to early differentiation of these two clinical conditions resulting in more efficient treatment strategies. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was acquired from the medial prefrontal cortex in 29 unmedicated patients with first episode of psychosis (FEP), 29 abstinent methamphetamine-addicted people (METH) and 45 healthy controls (HCs) (age range 17.3 to 29.9years old). The METH group displayed robust reductions in concentration levels of glutamate (Glu) relative to FEP (Cohen's d=1.20) and HC (d=0.87). The METH group also displayed reduced levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) relative to FEP (d=0.53) and HC (d=0.76). The HC group displayed a positive association between levels of Glu and NAA, r(45)=0.52, p<0.001, while the two clinical groups failed to show this normal association. This suggests that the cellular metabolism is altered in both conditions. These data support the assumption that cellular abnormalities differ between primary schizophrenia and methamphetamine addiction despite the overlap in clinical presentation.Schizophrenia Research 06/2014; 157(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.05.004 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Repeated administration of psychostimulants and other dependence-producing substances induces a substantial increase in behavioural responses, a phenomenon termed as behavioural sensitization. An increased response to the tested drug elicited by previous repeated administration of a different drug is called cross-sensitization. Behavioural sensitization is considered to be a relapse trigger in dependent subjects and animals sensitized by repeated administration of drugs of abuse, thus being considered a suitable model of craving, which is one of the very characteristic features of substance addiction. It has been described that apart from other actions, drugs of abuse exert their effect on the central nervous system by affecting glutamatergic transmissions, particularly via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Thus, this review presents a brief overview of the impact of inhibition of NMDA receptor system on sensitization, reflecting particularly on behavioural sensitization to psychostimulants. The text combines up-to-date information with time-proven facts and also compares data from literature with the authors' recent findings concerning this topic.European journal of pharmacology 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.02.028 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is abundant evidence showing that repeated use of MDMA (3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) has been associated with depression, anxiety and deficits in learning and memory, suggesting detrimental effects on hippocampus. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that has a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the role of A2a adenosine receptors agonist (CGS) and antagonist (SCH) on the body temperature, learning deficits, and hippocampal cell death induced by MDMA administration. In this study, 63 adult, male, Sprague - Dawley rats were subjected to MDMA (10 and 20 mg/kg) followed by intraperitoneal CGS (0.03 mg/kg) or SCH (0.03 mg/kg) injection. The animals were tested for spatial learning in the Morris water maze (MWM) task performance, accompanied by a recording of body temperature, electron microscopy and stereological study. Our results showed that MDMA treatment increased body temperature significantly, and impaired the ability of rats to locate the hidden platform(P < 0.05). The number of hippocampal dark neurons also increased especially in CA1. These impairments were aggravated by co-administration of A2a antagonist (SCH) with MDMA. Furthermore, the administration of the A2a receptor agonist (CGS) provided partial protection against MWM deficits and hippocampal cell death(P < 0.05). This study provides for the first time evidence that, in contrast to A2a antagonist (SCH) effects, co-administration of A2a agonist (CGS) with MDMA can protect against MDMA hippocampal neurotoxic effects; providing a potential value in the prevention of learning deficits observed in MDMA users. However, the exact mechanism of these interactions requires further studies.Metabolic Brain Disease 09/2012; DOI:10.1007/s11011-012-9334-6 · 2.40 Impact Factor