Complete cerebral ischemia with short-term survival in rats induced by cardiac arrest. I. Extracellular accumulation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid protein precursor in the brain.
ABSTRACT The distribution of beta-amyloid protein precursor (APP) was investigated immunocytochemically in rats subjected to global cerebral ischemia (GCI) induced by cardiac arrest. Rats underwent 10 min of GCI with 3, 6, and 12 h and 2 and 7 days of survival. APP immunostaining was found extracellular and intracellularly. Multiple extracellular APP immunoreactive deposits around and close to the vessels appeared as soon as 3 h after GCI. Extracellular accumulation of APP occurred frequently in the hippocampus, cerebral and cerebellar cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus and rarely in the brain stem. These deposits were labelled with antibodies against the N-terminal, beta-amyloid peptide, and C-terminal domains of APP. Our data suggests that either proteolytically cleaved fragments of the full-length APP or the entire APP molecule accumulates extracellularly after GCI. This findings may not only implicate the participation of APP in postischemic tissue damage but also suggest the involvement of pathomechanisms operating in ischemia in Alzheimer's disease pathology.
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ABSTRACT: Amyloid precursor protein cleavage through β- and γ-secretases produces β-amyloid peptide, which is believed to be responsible for death of neurons and dementia in Alzheimer's disease. Levels of β- and γ-secretase are increased in sensitive areas of the Alzheimer's disease brain, but the mechanism of this process is unknown. In this review, we prove that brain ischemia generates expression and activity of both β- and γ-secretases. These secretases are induced in association with oxidative stress following brain ischemia. Data suggest that ischemia promotes overproduction and aggregation of β-amyloid peptide in brain, which is toxic for ischemic neuronal cells. In our review, we demonstrated the role of brain ischemia as a molecular link between the β- and the γ-secretase activities and provided a molecular explanation of the possible neuropathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease.Molecular Neurobiology 10/2012; · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a dementing neurodegenerative disorder without a cure. The abnormal parenchymal accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) is associated with inflammatory reactions involving microglia and astrocytes. Increased levels of Abeta and Abeta deposition in the brain are thought to cause neuronal dysfunction and underlie dementia. Microglia, the brain resident cells of monocytic origin, have a potential ability to phagocytose Abeta but they also react to Abeta by increased production of proinflammatory toxic agents. Microglia originate from hemangioblastic mesoderm during early embryonic stages and from bone marrow (BM)-derived monocytic cells that home the brain throughout the neonatal stage of development. Recent studies indicate that BM or blood-derived monocytes are recruited to the diseased AD brain, associate with the Abeta depositions, and are more efficient phagocytes of Abeta compared with resident microglia. The clearance of Abeta deposition by these cells has been recently under intensive investigation and can occur through several different mechanisms. Importantly, peripheral monocytic cells of patients with AD appear to be deficient in clearing Abeta. This review will summarize the findings on the role of blood-derived cells in AD and discuss their therapeutic potential for treating patients suffering from this devastating disease.Glia 02/2010; 58(8):889-900. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral ischemia share similar features in terms of altered amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation. We have previously shown that Aβ and calcium deposition, and β-secretase activity, are robustly increased in the ipsilateral thalamus after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Here, we investigated whether the non-selective calcium channel blocker bepridil, which also inhibits β-secretase cleavage of APP, affects thalamic accumulation of Aβ and calcium and in turn influences functional recovery in rats subjected to MCAO. A 27-day bepridil treatment (50 mg/kg, p.o.) initiated two days after MCAO significantly decreased the levels of soluble Aβ40, Aβ42, and calcium in the ipsilateral thalamus as compared to vehicle-treated MCAO rats. Expression of seladin-1/DHCR24 protein, which is a potential protective factor against neuronal damage, was decreased at both mRNA and protein levels in the ipsilateral thalamus of MCAO rats. Conversely, bepridil treatment restored seladin-1/DHCR24 expression in the ipsilateral thalamus. Bepridil treatment did not significantly affect heme oxygenase-1- or NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1-mediated oxidative stress or inflammatory responses in the ipsilateral thalamus of MCAO rats. Finally, bepridil treatment mitigated MCAO-induced alterations in APP processing in the ipsilateral thalamus and improved contralateral forelimb use in MCAO rats. These findings suggest that bepridil is a plausible therapeutic candidate in AD or stroke owing to its multifunctional role in key cellular events that are relevant for the pathogenesis of these diseases. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2012 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 07/2012; · 4.75 Impact Factor