Complete cerebral ischemia with short-term survival in rats induced by cardiac arrest. I. Extracellular accumulation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid protein precursor in the brain.
ABSTRACT The distribution of beta-amyloid protein precursor (APP) was investigated immunocytochemically in rats subjected to global cerebral ischemia (GCI) induced by cardiac arrest. Rats underwent 10 min of GCI with 3, 6, and 12 h and 2 and 7 days of survival. APP immunostaining was found extracellular and intracellularly. Multiple extracellular APP immunoreactive deposits around and close to the vessels appeared as soon as 3 h after GCI. Extracellular accumulation of APP occurred frequently in the hippocampus, cerebral and cerebellar cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus and rarely in the brain stem. These deposits were labelled with antibodies against the N-terminal, beta-amyloid peptide, and C-terminal domains of APP. Our data suggests that either proteolytically cleaved fragments of the full-length APP or the entire APP molecule accumulates extracellularly after GCI. This findings may not only implicate the participation of APP in postischemic tissue damage but also suggest the involvement of pathomechanisms operating in ischemia in Alzheimer's disease pathology.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiopulmonary arrest remains one of the leading causes of death and disability in Western countries. Although ventricular fibrillation (VF) models in rodents mimic the "square wave" type of insult (rapid loss of pulse and pressure) commonly observed in adult humans at the onset of cardiac arrest (CA), they are not popular because of the complicated animal procedure, poor animal survival and thermal injury. Here we present a modified, simple, reliable, ventricular fibrillation-induced rat model of CA that will be useful in studying mechanisms of CA-induced delayed neuronal death as well as the efficacy of neuroprotective drugs. CA was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats using a modified method of von Planta et al. In brief, VF was induced in anesthetized, paralyzed, mechanically ventilated rats by an alternating current delivered to the entrance of the superior vena cava into the heart. Resuscitation was initiated by administering a bolus injection of epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate followed by mechanical ventilation and manual chest compressions and countershock with a 10-J DC current. Neurologic deficit score was higher in the CA group compared to the sham group during early reperfusion periods, suggesting brain damage. Significant damage in CA1 hippocampus (21% normal neurons compared to control animals) was observed following histopathological assessment at seven days of reperfusion. We propose that this method of VF-induced CA in rat provides a tool to study the mechanism of CA-induced neuronal death without compromising heart functions.Translational stroke research. 10/2013; 4(5).
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ABSTRACT: The study of sporadic Alzheimer's disease etiology, now more than ever, needs an infusion of new concepts. Despite ongoing interest in Alzheimer's disease, the basis of this entity is not yet clear. At present, the best-established and accepted "culprit" in Alzheimer's disease pathology by most scientists is the amyloid, as the main molecular factor responsible for neurodegeneration in this disease. Abnormal upregulation of amyloid production or a disturbed clearance mechanism may lead to pathological accumulation of amyloid in brain according to the "amyloid hypothesis." We will critically review these observations and highlight inconsistencies between the predictions of the "amyloid hypothesis" and the published data. There is still controversy over the role of amyloid in the pathological process. A question arises whether amyloid is responsible for the neurodegeneration or if it accumulates because of the neurodegeneration. Recent evidence suggests that the pathophysiology and neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease comprises more than amyloid accumulation, tau protein pathology and finally brain atrophy with dementia. Nowadays, a handful of researchers share a newly emerged view that the ischemic episodes of brain best describe the pathogenic cascade, which eventually leads to neuronal loss, especially in hippocampus, with amyloid accumulation, tau protein pathology and irreversible dementia of Alzheimer type. The most persuasive evidences come from investigations of ischemically damaged brains of patients and from experimental ischemic brain studies that mimic Alzheimer-type dementia. This review attempts to depict what we know and do not know about the triggering factor of the Alzheimer's disease, focusing on the possibility that the initial pathological trigger involves ischemic episodes and ischemia-induced gene dysregulation. The resulting brain ischemia dysregulates additionally expression of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid-processing enzyme genes that, in addition, ultimately compromise brain functions, leading over time to the complex alterations that characterize advanced sporadic Alzheimer's disease. The identification of the genes involved in Alzheimer's disease induced by ischemia will enable to further define the events leading to sporadic Alzheimer's disease-related abnormalities. Additionally, knowledge gained from the above investigations should facilitate the elaboration of the effective treatment and/or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.Molecular Neurobiology 03/2013; · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is a common belief that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) cannot carry toxic amounts of Ca(2+) in neurons. Also, some of them as L-type channels are essential for Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of prosurvival gene-programs. However, a wealth of data show a beneficial effect of drugs acting on VGCCs in several neurodegenerative and neurovascular diseases. In the present review, we explore several mechanisms by which the "harmless" VGCCs may become "toxic" for neurons. These mechanisms could explain how, though usually required for neuronal survival, VGCCs may take part in neurodegeneration. We will present evidence showing that VGCCs can carry toxic Ca(2+) when: a) their density or activity increases because of aging, chronic hypoxia or exposure to β-amyloid peptides or b) Ca(2+)-dependent action potentials carry high Ca(2+) loads in pacemaker neurons. Besides, we will examine conditions in which VGCCs promote neuronal cell death without carrying excess Ca(2+). This can happen, for instance, when they carry metal ions into the neuronal cytoplasm or when a pathological decrease in their activity weakens Ca(2+)-dependent prosurvival gene programs. Finally, we will explore the role of VGCCs in the control of nonneuronal cells that take part to neurodegeneration like those of the neurovascular unit or of microglia.Current Neuropharmacology 05/2013; 11(3):276-97. · 2.03 Impact Factor