El-Husseini AE-D, Paterson JA, Shiu RP 1994. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and two of its receptors, FGFR1 and FGFR2: gene expression in the rat brain during postnatal development as determined by quantitative RT-PCR
Regional and temporal patterns of the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and two of its high affinity receptors (FGFR1 and FGFR2), were examined in the male rat brain during early postnatal development; the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to obtain mRNA measurements which were expressed relative to mRNA for GAPDH as a constant. In the rat cerebrum, the mRNAs for bFGF and for FGFR2 were relatively low in amount within the first postnatal week, but by 28 days, they were as high as in the 1-year-old rat cerebrum. In contrast, the expression of FGFR1 was biphasic: mRNA levels were higher at postnatal days 1 and 28 than at day 21. Quantitation of mRNA from microdissected regions of 28-day-old rat brain revealed that the expression of bFGF and of FGFR2 showed a marked variation between regions but the expression of FGFR1 appeared less variable between the regions that were analyzed. For all three genes the hippocampus appeared to have high relative amounts of mRNA. The temporal patterns of expression of bFGF, FGFR1 and FGFR2 also differed with brain region during early postnatal development. In the occipital cortex and inferior colliculus, the mRNAs for bFGF and FGFR2 both increased in amount during the first month, unlike that for FGFR1. However, in the cerebellum, the highest expression of bFGF and FGFR1 mRNAs occurred at postnatal day 1; FGFR2 expression apparently showed less change with age. The temporal changes in bFGF, FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression in different brain regions during early postnatal development suggest that receptor regulation may permit different physiological effects of bFGF according to brain region and developmental age.
"However, in the adult rat, bFGF is detected in numerous astrocytes and in area CA2 neuronal somata (Eckenstein et al. 1994; Williams et al. 1996). FGF receptor type 1 (FGFR-1 or " flg " ) is normally present on hippocampal pyramidal cells in man, although these receptors and other FGF receptors are thought to exist primarily on glia (El-Husseini et al. 1994; Gonzalez et al. 1995; Ferrer and Marti 1998; Takami et al. 1998). To date, studies of FGF in hippocampus after seizures have been restricted to the aFGF (acidic FGF, also called FGF-1, ECGF, or HBGF-1) and bFGF. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To further elucidate the possible roles of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in retinal pathophysiology, messenger RNA levels
of acidic and basic FGF (aFGF and bFGF, respectively) were measured throughout embryonic and postnatal development until adulthood
in normal and dystrophic (Royal College of Surgeons, RCS) rat retinas using sensitive reverse transcription-coupled polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) techniques. In normal rats, both aFGF and bFGF transcript levels remained steadily low throughout embryogenesis
and up until 7 d of postnatal age. By 13 d bFGF mRNA had increased 30-fold, and by adulthood (4 mo) levels were 150 times
greater than in newborn retina. Dystrophic RCS retinas followed the same basic pattern, except that bFGF expression levels
were increased relative to normal rats: By 4 d postnatal RCS retinas contained three times more bFGF mRNA than normal, by
7 d they contained six times more, and by 10 d they contained eight times more. In contrast, aFGF mRNA levels rose only threefold
between embryonic and adult stages, and did not show any differences between normal and RCS rats. In parallel, staining of
lightly fixed frozen sections of young (<20 d) normal rat retina with antibodies to bFGF revealed only faint labeling of neural
cells, whereas adult retinal sections were labeled strongly, especially within the photoreceptor layer. Twenty-day RCS rat
retina showed detectable bFGF-like immunoreactivity. Hence, these data indicate that major aFGF and bFGF expression occurs
only late in retinal maturation, suggesting these factors act principally as survival factors, especially for photoreceptors.
In addition, the increased expression in a degenerative mutant strain may indicate the early onset of general cellular stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We applied reverse transcription-PCR to examine the gene expression of cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase in the rat brain. A PCR product with the size predicted from the type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK II) cDNA was detected in various regions of the brain, with highest expression in the thalamus. The amplified product of this cDNA was subcloned, sequenced, and consequently shown to be cGK II. Northern analysis confirmed that this kinase was highly expressed in the thalamus. In situ hybridization with riboprobes derived from this cDNA indicated that cGK II mRNA was highly expressed in the outer layers of the cortex, the septum, amygdala, and olfactory bulb with highest levels in the thalamus. High amounts of cGK II mRNA were also found in specific brainstem loci, including the medial habenula, the subthalamic nucleus, the locus ceruleus, the pontine nucleus, the inferior olivary nuclei, and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Only low levels of cGK II mRNA were detected in the striatum, cerebellum, and hippocampus. These data suggest that the effects of guanylyl cyclase activators, such as nitric oxide and the atriopeptides, in various regions of the CNS may be mediated through cGK II.
Journal of Neurochemistry 07/1995; 64(6):2814-7. DOI:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1995.64062814.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
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