Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and two of its receptors, FGFR1 and FGFR2: gene expression in the rat brain during postnatal development as determined by quantitative RT-PCR.
ABSTRACT Regional and temporal patterns of the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and two of its high affinity receptors (FGFR1 and FGFR2), were examined in the male rat brain during early postnatal development; the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to obtain mRNA measurements which were expressed relative to mRNA for GAPDH as a constant. In the rat cerebrum, the mRNAs for bFGF and for FGFR2 were relatively low in amount within the first postnatal week, but by 28 days, they were as high as in the 1-year-old rat cerebrum. In contrast, the expression of FGFR1 was biphasic: mRNA levels were higher at postnatal days 1 and 28 than at day 21. Quantitation of mRNA from microdissected regions of 28-day-old rat brain revealed that the expression of bFGF and of FGFR2 showed a marked variation between regions but the expression of FGFR1 appeared less variable between the regions that were analyzed. For all three genes the hippocampus appeared to have high relative amounts of mRNA. The temporal patterns of expression of bFGF, FGFR1 and FGFR2 also differed with brain region during early postnatal development. In the occipital cortex and inferior colliculus, the mRNAs for bFGF and FGFR2 both increased in amount during the first month, unlike that for FGFR1. However, in the cerebellum, the highest expression of bFGF and FGFR1 mRNAs occurred at postnatal day 1; FGFR2 expression apparently showed less change with age. The temporal changes in bFGF, FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression in different brain regions during early postnatal development suggest that receptor regulation may permit different physiological effects of bFGF according to brain region and developmental age.
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ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), also known as basic FGF, is a multi-functional growth factor. One of the 22-member FGF family, it signals through receptor tyrosine kinases encoding FGFR1-4. FGF2 activates FGFRs in cooperation with heparin or heparin sulfate proteoglycan to induce its pleiotropic effects in different tissues and organs, which include potent angiogenic effects and important roles in the differentiation and function of the central nervous system (CNS). FGF2 is crucial to development of the CNS, which explains its importance in adult neurogenesis. During development, high levels of FGF2 are detected from neurulation onwards. Moreover, developmental expression of FGF2 and its receptors is temporally and spatially regulated, concurring with development of specific brain regions including the hippocampus and substantia nigra pars compacta. In adult neurogenesis, FGF2 has been implicated based on its expression and regulation of neural stem and progenitor cells in the neurogenic niches, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. FGFR1 signaling also modulates inflammatory signaling through the surface glycoprotein CD200, which regulates microglial activation. Because of its importance in adult neurogenesis and neuroinflammation, manipulation of FGF2/FGFR1 signaling has been a focus of therapeutic development for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and traumatic brain injury. Novel strategies include intranasal administration of FGF2, administration of an NCAM-derived FGFR1 agonist, and chitosan-based nanoparticles for the delivery of FGF2 in pre-clinical animal models. In this review, we highlight current research towards therapeutic interventions targeting FGF2/FGFR1 in neurodegenerative disorders.Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 09/2013; 9(2). DOI:10.1007/s11481-013-9501-5 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To further elucidate the possible roles of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in retinal pathophysiology, messenger RNA levels of acidic and basic FGF (aFGF and bFGF, respectively) were measured throughout embryonic and postnatal development until adulthood in normal and dystrophic (Royal College of Surgeons, RCS) rat retinas using sensitive reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. In normal rats, both aFGF and bFGF transcript levels remained steadily low throughout embryogenesis and up until 7 d of postnatal age. By 13 d bFGF mRNA had increased 30-fold, and by adulthood (4 mo) levels were 150 times greater than in newborn retina. Dystrophic RCS retinas followed the same basic pattern, except that bFGF expression levels were increased relative to normal rats: By 4 d postnatal RCS retinas contained three times more bFGF mRNA than normal, by 7 d they contained six times more, and by 10 d they contained eight times more. In contrast, aFGF mRNA levels rose only threefold between embryonic and adult stages, and did not show any differences between normal and RCS rats. In parallel, staining of lightly fixed frozen sections of young (<20 d) normal rat retina with antibodies to bFGF revealed only faint labeling of neural cells, whereas adult retinal sections were labeled strongly, especially within the photoreceptor layer. Twenty-day RCS rat retina showed detectable bFGF-like immunoreactivity. Hence, these data indicate that major aFGF and bFGF expression occurs only late in retinal maturation, suggesting these factors act principally as survival factors, especially for photoreceptors. In addition, the increased expression in a degenerative mutant strain may indicate the early onset of general cellular stress.Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 08/1997; 9(1):13-25. DOI:10.1007/BF02789391 · 2.76 Impact Factor