Characterization of a new monoclonal antibody (PG-M3) directed against the aminoterminal portion of the PML gene product: immunocytochemical evidence for high expression of PML proteins on activated macrophages, endothelial cells, and epithelia.
ABSTRACT PG-M3 is a new monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specifically directed against a peptide sequence located in the aminoterminal region of the human PML protein. PML gene fuses with the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) gene during the t(15; 17) chromosomal translocation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The epitope recognized by PG-M3 is species-specific and fixative-resistant and is shared by most PML isoforms and PML/RAR alpha fusion proteins. PML is consistently located within the nucleus, although a minority of cells (about 20%), both in vitro and in vivo, show positivity for PML also in the cytoplasm. The nuclear staining pattern of PG-M3 varies from speckled (cells other than APL) to micropunctate (APL cells). Although two physiologically expressed PML isoforms are detectable by immunocytochemistry only or predominantly in the cytoplasm of transfected cells, the cytoplasmic localization of PML is a property also shared by the PML isoforms that predominantly localize to the nuclei. Immunohistologic analysis of normal human tissues with the PG-M3 MoAb showed variable PML expression, with the highest levels of the protein in postmitotic, differentiated cell types, such as endothelial cells, epithelia, and tissue macrophages, especially activated ones. In keeping with this in vivo finding, PML appears strongly upregulated in the U937 promonocyte cell line after exposure to agents that induce monocyte/macrophage activation (interferon gamma) or maturation (vitamin D3 and transforming growth factor beta 1).
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ABSTRACT: Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), a tumor suppressor, forms in most human cell types discrete multiprotein complexes termed PML nuclear bodies. Here, we have used indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy to describe various forms of a novel nuclear PML compartment associated with nucleoli that is found under growth-permitting conditions in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and skin fibroblasts but not in several immortal cell lines with defects in the p53 and pRb pathways. In addition, we found that shut-off of rRNA synthesis induced by actinomycin D causes PML translocation to the surface of segregated nucleoli. This translocation is dynamic and reversible, following changes in nucleolar activity. Intriguingly, treatment causing premature senescence restores PML binding to nucleoli-derived structures and to the surface of segregated nucleoli in HeLa cells. These findings indicate that PML may be involved in nucleolar functions of normal non-transformed or senescent cells. The absence of nucleolar PML compartment in rapidly growing tumor-derived cells suggests that PML association with the nucleolus might be important for cell-cycle regulation.Journal of Structural Biology 08/2007; 159(1):56-70. DOI:10.1016/j.jsb.2007.02.008 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The PML protein is one of the components of ND10, nuclear matrix-associated structures which undergo rapid disintegration at the onset of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. This disruption event has been frequently visualized in immunofluorescence assays using the anti-PML mouse monoclonal antibody PG-M3. This antibody was surprisingly found to also stain nuclear virus replication compartments when employed at higher concentrations. This was shown to be due to an unexpected cross-reactivity of the PG-M3 antibody with the HSV-1 immediate early protein ICP4, a known component of replication compartments. The sequences of ICP4 recognized by PG-M3 were found to map to the extreme amino-terminal end of the protein, which includes a 21 amino acid segment that is partially homologous to the peptide of PML that was used to make PG-M3. These results suggest that PG-M3 may no longer represent an appropriate antibody for use in visualizing the fate of PML and ND10 during HSV-1 infection.Journal of General Virology 08/2000; 81(Pt 7):1773-7. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IFP 35 is an interferon (IFN)-regulated leucine zipper protein, expression of which is observed in a variety of cell types including monocytes/macrophages, epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Using immunofluorescence studies, we demonstrate that IFP 35 is found in characteristic punctate cytoplasmic structures after IFN treatment. Co-localization experiments using double immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy failed to show association of IFP 35 with known organelles (mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, endosomes, Golgi complex), ribosomes, or actin filaments. Subcellular fractionation to separate membrane-associated from cytoplasmic proteins demonstrated that IFP 35 localizes to the cytoplasm. Separation of postnuclear supernatant from HeLa cells by gel filtration revealed that IFP 35 eluted at a molecular mass of 200-440 kD, suggesting that IFP 35 is part of protein complexes. Electron microscopic studies showed cytoplasmic clusters of a few aggregates of IFP 35 in IFN-treated cells which were neither associated with nor surrounded by a membrane. A combination of immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies of cells transfected with a hemagglutinin epitope-tagged IFP 35 expression construct demonstrated complex formation and co-localization of endogenous and transfected IFP 35. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that IFP 35 associates with unique cytoplasmic structures that are distinct from known organelles and resemble large protein aggregates.Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 03/1999; 47(2):169-82. DOI:10.1177/002215549904700206 · 2.40 Impact Factor