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Characterization of a new monoclonal antibody (PG-M3) directed against the aminoterminal portion of the PML gene product: Immunocytochemical evidence for high expression of PML proteins on activated macrophages, endothelial cells, and epithelia

Institute of Hematology, University of Perugia, Italy.
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.43). 05/1995; 85(7):1871-80.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT PG-M3 is a new monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specifically directed against a peptide sequence located in the aminoterminal region of the human PML protein. PML gene fuses with the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) gene during the t(15; 17) chromosomal translocation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The epitope recognized by PG-M3 is species-specific and fixative-resistant and is shared by most PML isoforms and PML/RAR alpha fusion proteins. PML is consistently located within the nucleus, although a minority of cells (about 20%), both in vitro and in vivo, show positivity for PML also in the cytoplasm. The nuclear staining pattern of PG-M3 varies from speckled (cells other than APL) to micropunctate (APL cells). Although two physiologically expressed PML isoforms are detectable by immunocytochemistry only or predominantly in the cytoplasm of transfected cells, the cytoplasmic localization of PML is a property also shared by the PML isoforms that predominantly localize to the nuclei. Immunohistologic analysis of normal human tissues with the PG-M3 MoAb showed variable PML expression, with the highest levels of the protein in postmitotic, differentiated cell types, such as endothelial cells, epithelia, and tissue macrophages, especially activated ones. In keeping with this in vivo finding, PML appears strongly upregulated in the U937 promonocyte cell line after exposure to agents that induce monocyte/macrophage activation (interferon gamma) or maturation (vitamin D3 and transforming growth factor beta 1).

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    • "At least seven isoforms have been described based on alternative splicing of the C-terminal exons, all of which contain the first three exons that encode the RBCC/TRIM motif (Jensen et al., 2001). The majority of PML isoforms (I-VI) have nuclear localization signal (NLS) that regulate their incorporation into NBs (Jensen et al., 2001; Melnick and Licht 1999); however, PML VII lacks this signal and subsequently, is confined to the cytoplasm (Flenghi et al., 1995; Fagioli et al., 1992). PML-NBs are macromolecular complexes of helicases and transcription factors that are important sites for transcriptional control (Maul et al., 2000; Nefkens et al., 2003). "
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