Human genetic diversity (immunoglobulin GM allotypes), linguistic data, and migrations of Amerindian tribes.
ABSTRACT GM haplotype frequencies were examined in 49 Amerindian tribes (from North, Central, and South America) to investigate the congruence of genetic variation with that observed in language and geography. We used two approaches: (1) the mobile site method, which allows a two-dimensional representation of genetic variation where the distances between reference points (i.e., the locations of the populations in the geographic map after displacements) are close to the genetic distances, and (2) a multivariate analysis (factorial correspondence analysis), which permits a visual interpretation of the geographic distribution of GM haplotypes on a map, completed by a cluster analysis. The results show a strong gradient from the Bering Strait to South America. The Eskimo and Na-Dene are genetically different from all other Amerindians, reflecting their more recent migrations. The orientation of most trajectories of the tribes from Central and South America can be interpreted as earlier migrations along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. We conclude that geographic and linguistic factors played a part in the genetic diversity of Amerindian tribes.
Article: The genetic diversity of three peculiar populations descending from the slave trade: Gm study of Noir Marron from French Guiana.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Noir Marron communities are the direct descendants of African slaves brought to the Guianas during the four centuries (16th to 19th) of the Atlantic slave trade. Among them, three major ethnic groups have been studied: the Aluku, the Ndjuka and the Saramaka. Their history led them to share close relationships with Europeans and Amerindians, as largely documented in their cultural records. The study of Gm polymorphisms of immunoglobulins may help to estimate the amount of gene flow linked to these cultural exchanges. Surprisingly, very low levels of European contribution (2.6%) and Amerindian contribution (1.7%) are detected in the Noir Marron gene pool. On the other hand, an African contribution of 95.7% redraws their origin to West Africa (F(ST) < or = 0.15). This highly preserved African gene pool of the Noir Marron is unique in comparison to other African American populations of Latin America, who are notably more admixed.Comptes rendus biologies 10/2009; 332(10):917-26. · 1.71 Impact Factor