Fine needle aspiration cytology of primary mediastinal germ cell tumors.
ABSTRACT Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on six patients with malignant mediastinal germ cell tumor: 1 pure seminoma, 1 pure embryonal carcinoma, 1 pure yolk sac tumor and 3 mixed germ cell tumors containing teratoma. Their cytologic features were compared with each other and with the cytologic features of thymoma, which arises commonly in the anterior mediastinum. A definitive cytologic diagnosis could be made only in the cases of seminoma because of its characteristic cytologic features. Cytochemical staining for germ cell alkaline phosphatase was helpful in diagnosing seminoma in the cytologic examination, while the presence of hyaline globule or alpha-fetoprotein immunostaining as the cytologic diagnostic feature of yolk sac tumor were not necessarily found in fine needle aspiration cytology. All epithelial, lymphocytic and mixed type thymomas were easily differentiated from the four types of germ cell tumor examined.
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ABSTRACT: Anterior mediastinal masses include a wide variety of diseases from benign lesions to extremely malignant tumors. Management strategies are highly diverse and depend strongly on the histological diagnosis as well as the extent of the disease. We reported a prospective study comparing the usefulness of core needle biopsy and mini-mediastinotomy under local anesthesia for histological diagnosis in anterior mediastinal masses. A total of 40 patients with masses of unknown histology and located either at or near the anterior mediastinum received biopsy prior to treatment. The diagnostic methods were core needle biopsy in 28 patients and biopsy through mini-mediastinotomy under local anesthesia in 15 patients (including 3 patients for whom core needle biopsy failed to yield a definite diagnosis). Histological diagnosis was achieved in 18 of the 28 patients receiving core needle biopsy. Of them, all 4 patients with pleural fibromas and 9 of the 12 patients (75%) with pulmonary mass were diagnosed definitively. In the remaining 12 patients with mediastinal mass, histological diagnosis was achieved in only 5 patients (41.7%). In contrast, biopsy through a mini-mediastinotomy failed in only 3 patients. In the remaining 12 patients with huge mediastinal masses, who underwent mini-mediastinotomy, a definitive histological diagnosis was reached by pathological and/or immunohistochemical study (diagnostic yield 85.7% in 12 of 14 cases of mediastinal mass, P = 0.038 vs core needle biopsy). For the 9 patients with thymic epithelial tumors, the diagnostic yield was 40% (2 in 5 cases) for core needle biopsy and 83.3% (5 in 6 cases) for mini-mediastinotomy. There was no morbidity in patients receiving mini-mediastinotomy. In the 30 patients with biopsy-proven histological diagnosis, the results contributed to therapeutic decision making in 25 cases (83.3%). Core needle biopsy is effective in the diagnosis of pulmonary and pleural diseases. Yet its diagnostic yield in mediastinal mass is rather low. Superior to core needle biopsy, biopsy through a mini-mediastinotomy under local anesthesia is highly effective in the histological diagnosis of anterior mediastinal mass, and has a satisfactory diagnostic yield. The method is safe, minimally invasive, cost-effective, and useful in therapeutic decision making for anterior mediastinal masses.Chinese medical journal 05/2007; 120(8):675-9. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The last several years have witnessed an increase in reports regarding the pathology and classification of mediastinal neoplasms that heretofore have received relatively scant attention in comparison to tumors from other anatomic locations. Some of these, such as thymoma, remain controversial and contentious subjects. The sampling and diagnosis of mediastinal tumors using the technique of fine-needle aspiration biopsy has not gained acceptance among radiologists, surgeons, and pathologists to the degree it has for tumors of the thyroid or breast. Thus, the literature regarding aspiration cytopathology of mediastinal neoplasms is extremely limited. This report focuses on the salient cytopathologic features of epithelial, lymphoid, and germ cell tumors of the mediastinum and correlates the cytomorphology with their histologic equivalent.Annals of Diagnostic Pathology 03/2002; 6(1):30-43. DOI:10.1053/adpa.2002.29341 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumors of germ cell origin uncommonly arise in extragonadal sites. We report two cases of intracranial germinoma, in which it was necessary to distinguish between intracranial germinoma and metastatic carcinoma in cytological specimens. Cytologically, not only single tumor cells or loosely connective tumor cells but also closely packed clusters of cells and pair cells were recognized. Immunocytochemically, almost all tumor cells were immunoreactive for M2A, placental alkaline phosphatase, and c-kit. Closely packed clusters were also immunoreactive for pan-cytokeratin. Therefore, Cytopathologists should be aware that tumor cell clusters, mimicking carcinoma might appear in cytological specimens of intracranial germinomas. Although immunocytochemical analysis assists in correct diagnosis, some cell clusters showing cytokeratin immunoreactivity does not become the basis for the diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma. A panel of antibodies including D2-40, PLAP, and c-kit should be used.Diagnostic Cytopathology 01/2009; 38(2):132-6. DOI:10.1002/dc.21183 · 1.52 Impact Factor