Risperidone in the treatment of affective illness and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Transcultural Mental Health Institute, Washington, DC 20036-6043, USA.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.14). 10/1995; 56(9):423-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Risperidone is a new-generation atypical antipsychotic agent with potent dopaminergic and serotonergic antagonist activity. Compared with traditional dopamine-blocking neuroleptics, risperidone is more effective in treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia and may be less likely to cause extrapyramidal symptoms or tardive dyskinesia. Although risperidone is marketed for the treatment of schizophrenia, its novel psychopharmacologic effects and potentially mild side effect profile suggest the possibility of other therapeutic applications. An open prospective study was undertaken to determine whether risperidone might diminish psychosis, severe agitation, or rapid cycling in patients having acute and chronic primary affective illnesses (bipolar and major depressive disorder) and to document response characteristics and side effects. Additionally, a small number of patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without comorbid tic or delusional disorders were given open trials of risperidone added to their medication.
Outpatients who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I, bipolar II, or major depressive disorder and suffered from psychosis or agitation associated with their illness (N = 20) and those who had treatment-refractory DSM-IV OCD (N = 5) were started on open trials of risperidone at daily doses of 1 to 1.5 mg. Doses were adjusted upwards to a maximum of 6 mg depending on clinical response.
Seventeen (85%) of 20 patients (13 bipolar, 4 major depressive disorder) showed complete or partial improvement after treatment with risperidone doses ranging from 1 to 6 mg/day (mean = 3.5 mg). Beneficial effects included decreases in agitation, psychosis, sleep disturbance, and rapid cycling. Four patients (20%) discontinued risperidone because of intolerable side effects. Five patients with refractory OCD also showed significant symptomatic improvement after the addition of risperidone.
The findings suggest that (1) risperidone may be useful in the acute/p.r.n. and chronic treatment of psychosis, agitation, and cycling accompanying affective illness, and (2) risperidone may be useful in augmenting pharmacologic response in OCD.

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