Mental stress-induced ischemia in the laboratory and ambulatory ischemia during daily life. Association and hemodynamic features.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the correspondence of mental stress-induced ischemia in the laboratory with ambulatory ischemia and to assess the relationship between hemodynamic responses to mental stress and the occurrence of ischemia. Although exercise testing is usually used to elicit myocardial ischemia, ischemia during daily life usually occurs at relatively low heart rates and in the absence of strenuous physical exercise. Mental stress has been shown to trigger ischemic events in the laboratory at lower heart rates but at blood pressures comparable to exercise. We therefore compared the extent to which mental stress and exercise testing identify patients who develop ischemia out of hospital.
One hundred thirty-two patients with documented coronary disease and recent evidence of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia underwent 48-hour ambulatory monitoring and radionuclide ventriculography during exercise and mental stress testing. Patients who displayed mental stress-induced ischemia in the laboratory were more likely to exhibit ischemia during daily life (P < .021). Furthermore, patients who exhibited ischemia during ambulatory monitoring displayed larger diastolic blood pressure (P < .006), heart rate (P < .039), and rate-pressure product responses (P < .018) during mental stress.
Among patients with prior positive exercise stress tests, mental stress-induced ischemia, defined by new wall motion abnormalities, predicts daily ischemia independent of exercise-induced ischemia. Exaggerated hemodynamic responses during mental stress testing also identify individuals who are more likely to exhibit myocardial ischemia during daily life and mental stress.
SourceAvailable from: Mark W Ketterer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chest pain is one of the most frequent presenting complaints in Emergency Rooms and other medical settings. A considerable number of these patients do not have significant coronary artery disease. This led to plausible alternative explanations for these presenting symptoms and these patients tend to have unremarkable cardiac outcomes. Nevertheless, many studies have also documented that symptoms and related disability persist in the face of reassurances about benign cardiac status. Given the implied threat of chest pain (e.g., myocardial infarction) and the presence of chest pain symptoms in other noncardiac conditions (including anxiety and panic), it is not surprising that many of these patients present with considerable emotional distress. Consequently, chest pain symptoms represent diagnostic and treatment dilemmas for physicians and psychologists alike. The extent to which cardiac and noncardiac factors contribute to all forms of chest pain remains unknown. The function of this review is to provide mental health professionals with a primer on relevant clinical issues in chronic chest pain. We examine several common medical and psychiatric causes of chronic chest pain and selectively review (1) the relevant medical and psychiatric diagnostic and treatment considerations for chest pain and (2) the hypothetical biobehavioral mechanisms relevant to psychological intervention, (3) while expanding on existing conceptual models for understanding chest pain, and (4) offering some suggestions for future research.Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 01/1999; 6(4). DOI:10.1023/A:1026215730296 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mental stress and emotional arousal can act as triggers of myocardial infarction and other adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This editorial presents an overview of the research on mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) and comments on two investigations examining MSIMI published in this journal. These studies confirm that MSIMI is frequently observed in patients with coronary artery disease and that characteristics, such as being a woman younger than 50 years and depression, may increase the relative risk of MSIMI. The method used for determining MSIMI (i.e., assessing cardiac function as determined by echocardiography versus measurement of myocardial perfusion using single-photon emission computed tomography), as well as the nature of the mental stress protocols (i.e., one stress task versus several repeated tasks), may have important effects on the findings of MSIMI research and on their interpretation. An overview of clinical characteristics of MSIMI is presented, and the article concludes with possible directions for future MSIMI research.Psychosomatic Medicine 03/2014; DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000054 · 4.09 Impact Factor