Continuous prazosin administration in cirrhotic patients: effects on portal hemodynamics and on liver and renal function.
ABSTRACT Hepatic vascular resistance is influenced by alpha-adrenergic tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors with prazosin on hemodynamics, liver function, and renal function and whether the association of propranolol or furosemide enhances the portal pressure lowering effect of prazosin.
Cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension were studied at baseline and after a 3-month course of prazosin (n = 18) or placebo (n = 10).
No changes were observed in the placebo group. Prazosin decreased the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) while increasing hepatic blood flow. Liver function improved as shown by an increase in hepatic and intrinsic hepatic clearances of indocyanine green and galactose elimination capacity. A significant reduction in mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance was associated with increases in plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration and a decrease in glomerular filtration rate. The plasma volume increased significantly, and 6 patients developed edema. The association of propranolol (n = 8) but not furosemide (n = 7) to prazosin increased the reduction in HVPG and attenuated the increase in plasma renin activity.
In cirrhotic patients, continuous prazosin administration reduces portal pressure and improves liver perfusion and function but favors sodium and water retention. The association of propranolol enhances the decrease in portal pressure, suggesting a potential benefit from this combined therapy.
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ABSTRACT: A physiological approach has been developed recognizing that hepatic blood flow, the activity of the overall elimination process (intrinsic clearance), drug binding in the blood, and the anatomical arrangement of the hepatic circulation are the major biological determinants of hepatic drug clearance. This approach permits quantitative prediction of both the unbound and total drug concentration/time relationships in the blood after intravenous and oral administration, and any changes that may occur as a result of alterations in the above biological parameters. These considerations have led to a classification of drug metabolism based on the hepatic extraction ratio. The proposed classification allows prediction and interpretation of the effects of individual variations in drug-metabolizing activity, route of administration, pharmacokinetic interactions, and disease states on hepatic drug elimination.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 11/1975; 18(4):377-90. · 6.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The results of a study to characterize the effects of the oral administration of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (Is-5-Mn), the active metabolite of isosorbide dinitrate, on portal hypertension in 23 patients with cirrhosis are reported. Patients received 20 mg of Is-5-Mn (n = 10), 40 mg (n = 9), or a placebo (n = 4). No significant changes were observed after the administration of the placebo. However, both doses of Is-5-Mn significantly reduced portal pressure, as evaluated by measurements of the hepatic venous pressure gradient. The fall in portal pressure averaged 10% after the 20-mg dose and 18% after 40 mg and was maintained for the 2 h of observation. Reduction of portal pressure was due to a decrease in the wedged hepatic vein pressure, with no changes in the free hepatic venous pressure. After the 20-mg dose, the decrease in portal pressure was associated with an increase in hepatic blood flow (16%), suggesting a fall in hepatic vascular resistance. However, after the 40-mg dose, a reflex splanchnic vasoconstriction elicited by the fall in arterial pressure (-19%) appeared to contribute to the greater reduction in portal pressure, as suggested by a significant decrease in azygos blood flow (-15%). These beneficial effects on portal pressure were not associated with adverse effects on liver function, as evaluated by measurements of the hepatic clearance of indocyanine green and the hepatic intrinsic clearance. Neither dose of Is-5-Mn caused significant changes in these quantitative parameters of liver function. These findings suggest that Is-5-Mn could be a potentially useful and safe agent in the treatment of portal hypertension.Gastroenterology 05/1989; 96(4):1110-8. · 12.82 Impact Factor
- Gastroenterology 08/1981; 81(1):159-73. · 12.82 Impact Factor