Uses of therapeutic x rays in medicine.
ABSTRACT Treatment of diseases with x rays began within months of Roentgen's discovery, and within four years x rays were being used successfully for the treatment of skin cancers. Deep-seated cancers began to be treated successfully in the 1920's with the advent of "deep" x-ray units and, especially, once supervoltage therapy machines became available in the 1930's. The 1940's and 1950's saw significant growth of megavoltage therapy, initially with Van de Graaff generators and betatrons, and later with linear accelerators. Linear accelerators became popular during the 1960's and 1970's and, by the 1980's they began to replace 60Co units as the most common form of treatment machine. With high-energy linear accelerators, computerized treatment planning, and ingenious fractionation schemes, modern radiotherapy has become a vital component of cancer treatment.
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ABSTRACT: In this study the authors analyze the documentation regarding the earliest known X-ray treatments with the objective of identifying the true origin of radiation therapy. The four most often quoted events, including X-ray treatments allegedly performed in 1896 are analyzed in the light of available published reports. From this it is concluded that Despeignes of Lyon, who in July of 1896 irradiated a patient with cancer of the stomach, is in all likelihood the first person to perform documented radiation therapy treatments with a scientific and logical basis.Radiotherapy and Oncology 04/1997; 42(3):213-7. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the feasibility of using intermediate energy 2 MV x-rays for extracranial robotic intensity modulated radiation therapy. Two megavolts flattening filter free x-rays were simulated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP (v4c). A convolution/superposition dose calculation program was tuned to match the Monte Carlo calculation. The modeled 2 MV x-rays and actual 6 MV flattened x-rays from existing Varian Linacs were used in integrated beam orientation and fluence optimization for a head and neck, a liver, a lung, and a partial breast treatment. A column generation algorithm was used for the intensity modulation and beam orientation optimization. Identical optimization parameters were applied in three different planning modes for each site: 2, 6 MV, and dual energy 2/6 MV. Excellent agreement was observed between the convolution/superposition and the Monte Carlo calculated percent depth dose profiles. For the patient plans, overall, the 2/6 MV x-ray plans had the best dosimetry followed by 2 MV only and 6 MV only plans. Between the two single energy plans, the PTV coverage was equivalent but 2 MV x-rays improved organs-at-risk sparing. For the head and neck case, the 2MV plan reduced lips, mandible, tongue, oral cavity, brain, larynx, left and right parotid gland mean doses by 14%, 8%, 4%, 14%, 24%, 6%, 30% and 16%, respectively. For the liver case, the 2 MV plan reduced the liver and body mean doses by 17% and 18%, respectively. For the lung case, lung V20, V10, and V5 were reduced by 13%, 25%, and 30%, respectively. V10 of heart with 2 MV plan was reduced by 59%. For the partial breast treatment, the 2 MV plan reduced the mean dose to the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs by 27% and 47%, respectively. The mean body dose was reduced by 16%. The authors showed the feasibility of using flattening filter free 2 MV x-rays for extracranial treatments as evidenced by equivalent or superior dosimetry compared to 6 MV plans using the same inverse noncoplanar intensity modulated planning method.Medical Physics 04/2014; 41(4):041709. · 2.91 Impact Factor